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SOUTH AFRICA ANTI-APARTHEID I) Introduction a) What was apartheid? i) A system where no bones were made, no claims to racial harmony. A system about apartness and separation in which whites that were a distinct minority ruled over blacks, making South African blacks aliens in their own land. b) Who instituted it? When did they do so and why? i) The Afrikaners—descendent from the Dutch. 1948 was the year this occurred. The first free and fair non-racial election was 1994. c) Recognition of Nelson Mandela i) The first time he was able to vote was for himself and he won. II) How was the South African System of apartheid similar to and different from segregation/discrimination in the U.S.? a) Similarities i) Basis of exclusion was color (1) Blacks/whites/Asians ii) Existence of legal superstructure for enforcement (1) Jim Crow in the US. iii) Legislation as backed by repressive authorities b) Differences i) White majority/black minority in the U.S. vs. black majority/white minority in South Africa (1) Proportion of people involved. At 80%, they made up the majority in South Africa. White South Africa was about 9%. The rest is mixed Asian and colored. ii) Locally based discrimination in the U.S. South vs. national standards in South African iii) Discrimination in U.S. South went vs. constitutional norms/political ethos vs. official racism South Africa iv) South African repression was more institutionalized/routine than in U.S. South v) Territorial segregation in South Africa/efforts to control physical movement of blacks. No official territorial segregation in the U.S. III. Impact of Differences on Opposition Movement More extensive change required to bring equality to SA blacks: Less room for REFORM
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Civil rights movement in US stood on stronger cultural and legal ground IV) Opportunity Structure/Context for the Anti-Apartheid Movement a) Economic Development: Agriculture and mining had been the cornerstones of the South African economy until the 1940s. Mines stimulate labor militance because it is a very dangerous workplace. i) Industrialization : Half of the world’s gold supply comes from South Africa so protesting is not a bad idea ii) Urbanization and heightened political militance: Adapt or die. No cultural or legal ground for apartheid to base itself because there was no basis of racial segregation. iii) Growth in working class organization (union movement): African National Conference (ANC) and South African Communist Party (SACP.) iv) South Africa’s economic link to the global economy: Export led economy. There is a strong connection between what South Africa produced and what the market will give for the products. Ripe situation for transnational activism. Other countries tried to help the apartheid situation by strangling the economy and not buying from South Africa.
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