Bio Book Notes - Chapter1 18:03 Sevencharacteristicsoflife:...

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Chapter 1 18:03 Seven characteristics of life: 1. Cells and organization i. Organisms maintain internal order that is separate from the environment ii. The simplest unit of organization is the cell 2. Energy use and metabolism i. To maintain their internal order, energy is needed by organisms ii. Energy is utilized in chemical reactions collectively known as metabolism iii. Plants, algae, and certain bacteria can directly harness light energy to  produce their own nutrients through  photosynthesis iv. Animals and fungi are consumers and must eat other organisms as food to  obtain energy 3. Response to environmental changes i. Organisms react to environmental changes to promote their survival ii. Responses to environmental changes are examples of  adaptations processes and structures by which organisms adjust to short-term or long- term changes in their environment 4. Regulation and homeostasis i. Organisms regulate their cells and bodies to maintain relatively stable  internal conditions =  homeostasis 5. Growth and development i. Growth  produces more or larger cells ii. Development  produces organisms with a defined set of characteristics 6. Reproduction i. To sustain life over many generations, organisms must reproduce ii. Due to genetic material offspring tend to have traits like their parents
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1. All living organisms contain genetic material composed of  DNA , which  provides the blueprint for the organization, development, and function  of living things 2. DNA harbors  genes , which contribute to the characteristics or traits of  organisms 3. Most genes are transcribed into a type of RNA molecule called mRNA  that is then translated into a polypeptide with a specific amino acid  sequence = molecular gene expression 4. Polypeptides  are the structural units of functional proteins 7. Biological evolution i. Populations of organisms change over the course of many generations ii. Evolution results in traits that promote survival and reproductive success Levels of organization: 1. Atoms:  an  atom  is the smallest component of an element that has the  chemical properties of the element. All matter is composed of atoms. 2. Molecules and macromolecules:  atoms bond with each other to form  molecules .  When many molecules bond together to form a polymer, this is  called a  macromolecule RNA) are important macromolecules found in living organisms. 3.
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This note was uploaded on 02/21/2010 for the course BIOLOGY CELL 10100 taught by Professor Dr.vijayaraghavan during the Spring '10 term at Tulane.

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Bio Book Notes - Chapter1 18:03 Sevencharacteristicsoflife:...

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