Baoxun - Chinese
7A
 Unit
1
 
 保 训

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Chinese
7A
 Unit
1
 
 保 训 
“Rules
for
Protection”
 
 Introduction:

 
 A
set
of
recently
excavated
bamboo
slips
were
bought
on
the
black
market
by
 an
alumni
group
and
donated
to
Qinghua
University
in
July
of
2008.
As
a
result,
they
 have
become
known
as
the
“Qinghua
slips.”
According
to
carbon‐14
dating,
the
 Qinghua
slips
date
to
the
middle
to
late
Warring
States
period.
The
characters
and
 style
are
for
the
most
part
that
of
the
Chu
state,
and
there
are
2,388
slips
altogether,
 counting
those
that
are
partial.
 
 Once
the
slips
were
cleaned,
it
was
found
almost
all
had
writing
on
them.
 They
vary
in
length
from
about
10
to
46
centimeters.
They
are
written
in
different
 hands,
and
some
of
the
slips
still
have
pink
lines
on
them,
something
records
refer
 to:
“vermillion
silk
thread
writing
guide
lines”
(Zhu
si
lan
朱丝栏).

 
 In
terms
of
content,
the
texts
do
not
include
grave
inventory
slips
or
other
 types
of
records
commonly
found
in
Warring
States
tombs,
but
rather
are
strictly
 historical
in
nature.
Initial
reports
indicate
that
the
content
of
the
Qinghua
slips
 overlap
with
the
Classic
of
Documents.
Specifically,
the
chapters
“Metal‐Bound
 coffer”
(Jingteng
金滕),
“Announcement
to
the
Prince
of
Kang”
(Kanggao
康诰),
and
 “Testamentary
Charge”
(Guming
顾命)
are
mentioned
as
areas
of
overlap.
 Differences
include
sentences
missing,
and
even
different
titles.
Other
sections
of
the
 Qinghua
slips
are
previously
unknown
texts.
An
example
is
“The
Charge
to
Fu
at
 Yue”
(Fu
Yue
zhi
ming
傅说之命)
which
is
perhaps
the
original
chapter
about
whose
 
 1
 title
a
“Charge
at
Yue”
(Yueming
说命)
was
later
forged.
A
final
important
work
is
a
 historical
record
that
begins
with
the
start
of
the
Western
Zhou
and
continues
 through
the
early
Warring
States
period,
containing
some
content
that
is
similar
to
 the
transmitted
Bamboo
Annals
(Zhushu
jianian
竹书纪年).
 
 In
the
June
issue
of
the
archaeology
journal
Wenwu,
11
of
the
Qinghua
slips,
 given
the
title
“Baoxun”
保 训 
or
“Rules
for
Protection,”
were
published.
The
11
slips
 are
short
slips,
only
28.5
centimeters
long.
The
“Rules
for
Protection”
is
framed
as
 the
last
words
of
a
dying
King
Wen
to
his
son,
in
which
he
passes
down
the
 principles
by
which
the
Zhou
state
should
be
ruled.
He
tells
two
stories
that
outline
 the
strategy
used
by
prior
rulers,
which
appear
to
be
the
content
of
the
baoxun
宝训
 “precious
rules”
that
was
chosen
as
its
title
by
the
experts
at
Qinghua
University.
 
 In
terms
of
content,
both
narratives
are
centered
on
the
concept
of
zhong
中
 or
“the
Middle.”
The
first
describes
Shun’s
embrace
of
the
idea,
which
entails
a
set
of
 strategies
about
reconciling
opposites
and
lessening
extremes.
A
common
farmer,
 Shun’s
application
of
this
method
to
agriculture
inspires
the
ruler,
Yao,
to
cede
the
 kingdom
to
him.
These
concepts
have
a
lot
in
common
with
specific
Warring
States
 strategies
for
political
administration
found
in
texts
later
associated
with
Daoism
or
 the
Classic
of
Changes,
and
the
overall
idea
that
methods
that
succeed
in
the
natural
 world
could
be
applied
to
governance
of
the
human
world
is
popular
in
the
fourth
 and
third
centuries
B.C.E.
The
best
example
is
from
the
so‐called
“Doctrine
of
the
 Mean”
(Zhongyong
中庸)
chapter
of
the
Records
of
Ritual
(Liji
禮記),
which
says
this
 about
Shun:
 
 子曰:“舜其大知也與!舜好問而好察邇言,隱惡而揚善,執其兩端,用其 中於民,其斯以為舜乎!”
 
 The
Master
said,
“Wasn’t

Shun
immensely
wise?
Shun
was
good
at
asking
 questions
and
was
good
at
examining
what
others
said.
He
concealed
the
bad
 and
displayed
what
was
good.
He
took
hold
of
the
two
extremes,
determined
 
 2
 the
Mean,
and
by
grasping
both
corners
could
apply
the
Middle
to
the
 common
people.
This
was
the
means
by
which
he
became
Shun!"
 The
second
narrative
is
about
a
Shang
ruler’s
use
of
it
connection
with
another
 nation,
and
is
not
very
detailed.

 
 By
contrast,
the
frame
of
these
two
stories
is
very
similar
to
the
type
of
 momentous
speech
found
in
the
Classic
of
Documents.
My
own
sense
is
that
the
 stories
were
inserted
into
this
frame
as
a
way
of
giving
them
the
cultural
authority
 of
King
Wen.

 
 Rough
translation:
 惟王五十年,不瘳。
 This
was
the
king’s
fiftieth
year,
and
he
had
not
recovered.
 Notes:
Wei
惟
here
introduces
a
subject.
According
the
Classic
of
Documents:
 “When
King
Wen
received
the
Mandate
[of
Heaven]
it
was
in
midlife,
he
was
on
 the
throne
of
the
state
for
50
years”
文王受命惟中身,厥享国五十年。
(无逸)
 王念日之多鬲(历),恐坠宝训。
 The
king
thought
of
the
passage
of
days
and
feared
the
loss
of
the
precious
rules.

 戊子,
自靧。己丑,
昧爽……
 On
the
wuzi
day
(i.e.,
day
25
of
the
60‐day
cycle),
he
washed
his
face.
On
the
jichou
 day
(i.e.,
day
26
of
the
60‐day
cycle),
just
before
dawn…
 Notes:
Much
of
the
top
of
the
second
slip
is
lost,
so
there
are
dots.
For
King
 Wen,
the
time
昧爽
is
when
he
addresses
and
assembles
his
troops
prior
to
 
 3
 defeating
the
Shang
(see
the
牧誓
and
武成
chapters).
Here,
the
significance
 of
the
washing
and
early
morning
procedure
probably
has
to
do
with
ritual
 purification
prior
to
addressing
his
descendents.
 王若曰:“发,昔前夗(贤)传宝,必受之以詷(同)。
 ...The
king
said:
“Fa,
long
ago
the
past
worthies
transmitted
to
me
these
precious
 things,
they
must
be
received
with
agreement.”
 昔舜旧作小人,亲耕于历丘,恐救(求)中,自诣(稽)厥志,不违于庶万姓之多欲。
 “In
the
past,
Shun
had
once
been
a
petty
man,
and
personally
plowed
the
fields
of
 Liqiu.
Fearfully
he
searched
for
the
Middle.
He
tried
to
reach
the
apex
of
his
 ambitions,
and
never
opposed
the
many
wishes
of
the
common
people
of
the
myriad
 surnames.”
 Notes:
The
“Middle”
here
is
the
central
term
in
the
two
narrative
recounted
 by
King
Wen
in
this
text.

 
 厥有施于上下远迩,
迺(乃)易位迩稽,
测阴阳之物,
咸顺不扰。
 “From
then
he
conferred
benefits
on
both
high
and
low,
both
distant
and
near,
then
 he
exchanged
their
positions
and
brought
near
their
apexes,
he
plumbed
the
yin
and
 yang
of
all
phenomena,
and
all
flowed
smoothly
and
were
not
disturbed.”
 舜既得中,
言不易实变名,
身滋备惟允,
翼翼不懈,
用作三(參)降之德。
 “Once
Shun
had
achieved
the
Middle,
in
his
words
he
did
not
change
or
alter
the
 relation
between
the
real
world
and
the
words
describing
it,
in
his
conduct
he
was
 
 4
 always
prepared
and
was
only
consenting.
He
was
well‐ordered
and
never
idle,
and
 because
of
this
in
making
things
he
matched
himself
with
the
abundant
virtue.”
 Notes:
The
term
weiyun
惟允
appears
in
an
appointment
made
by
di,
the
 ancestral
deity
elsewhere
in
the
Classic
of
Documents:
“Early
and
late
go
out,
 so
my
commands
are
only
accepted.”
夙夜出纳朕命惟允.
The
term
yiyi
 appears
ten
times
in
the
Classic
of
Poetry,
most
famously
in
the
opening
of
 “Greater
brightness”:
维此文王、小心翼翼。
“This
King
Wen
of
ours,
his
 prudent
heart
was
well‐ordered,”
(ACL
translation).
Here,
I
read
long
隆
 “abundant”
–‐
perhaps

referring
to
Yao’s
virtue?
‐‐
for
jiang
降
“descend,”
but
 it
could
also
be
jiang.
 
 
 帝尧嘉之,
用受厥绪。

 
 Emperor
Yao
approved
of
this
and
on
this
basis
passed
on
to
him
the
succession.
 
 Note:
The
“thread”
of
succession
or
juexu
厥绪
appears
in
the
五子之歌
 chapter
of
the
Classic
of
Documents:
“We
have
forsaken
the
thread,
razing
the
 ancestral
temple
and
discontinuing
the
sacrifices!”
荒坠厥绪,覆宗绝祀!
 implying
the
thread
carries
with
it
the
implication
of
the
mandate.
 
 昔微矵中于河,
以复有易,
有易服(伏)厥罪,
微无害。
 
 Long
ago,
Wei
borrowed
the
Middle
from
the
[deity
of
the]
Yellow
River
and
used
it
 to
repay
the
Youyi
nation.
The
Youyi
nation
admitted
their
guilt
and
so
Wei
was
 uninjured.

 
 Notes:
Reading
qi
矵
as
qi
砌,
perhaps
meaning
to
establish.
Following
Xi
 Zhen
喜贞,
I
read
he
“river”
as
He
Bo
河伯,
the
deity
of
the
Yellow
River.
 
 
 迺(乃)追中于河。
传贻子孙,
至於成汤。”
 

 He
then
solicited
the
Middle
from
the
[deity
of
the]
Yellow
River.
He
handed
it
down
 
 5
 to
his
descendants,
until
it
reached
to
Cheng
Tang
(i.e.,
the
first
ruler
of
the
Shang).”
 
 曰:
“不足,
惟宿不羕
(悉)
。”
 
 [His
son]
said:
“This
is
insufficient,
your
dwelling
here
is
not
complete.”

 
 
 Sources:
 
 This
rough
translation
is
largely
based
on
Li
Xueqin’s
李学勤
understanding
of
the
 text.
A
number
of
scholars
have
already
posted
alternative
interpretations.
There
 are
a
variety
of
websites
that
contain
recently
posted
articles
on
this
find
(and
other
 recent
archaeological
work).
I’ve
consulted
some
of
them,
but
have
not
had
the
time
 to
read
more
widely.
The
best
sites
are:
 
 Guwenzi (Fudan): http://www.guwenzi.com Jianbo: www.bamboosilk.org a.k.a. www.jianbo.org Qinghua: http://www.confucius2000.com Wuhan: http://www.bsm.org.cn/ - Mark Csikszentmihalyi 
 6
 ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 02/22/2010 for the course CHINESE 20648 taught by Professor Csikszentmihalyi during the Fall '09 term at University of California, Berkeley.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online