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Lecture Notes 11-14-08 - Chapter 6 How Cells Read The...

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Chapter 6 How Cells Read The Genome: From DNA to Protein
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From DNA to RNA Much of the DNA in the genome is used to specify the linear order of amino acids for all the proteins in an organism The amino acid sequence dictates how each protein folds to give a molecule a unique shape and chemistry Would you predict that the information present in genomes is arranged in an orderly fashion? The genomes of most multicellular organisms are highly disorganized
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Portions of DNA nucleotide sequence are copied into an RNA nucleotide sequence – a process termed transcription RNA, like DNA, is a polymer made of four different types of nucleotide subunits linked together by phosphodiester bonds RNA differs from DNA in that: The nucleotides in RNA are ribonucleotides rather than deoxyribonucleotides RNA contains the base uracil (U) instead of the thymine (T) that is found in DNA RNA is single stranded, whereas DNA always occurs in cells as a double stranded helix RNA chains therefore can fold into a variety of three dimensional shapes that can have structural and catalytic functions
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