Lecture Notes 12-3-08 - FromRNAtoProtein mRNAiscalledacodon...

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From RNA to Protein The synthesis of proteins is guided by  information carried by mRNA molecules Each group of three consecutive nucleotides in  mRNA is called a codon Each codon specifies either one amino acid or a  stop to the translation process To maintain the correct reading frame and  ensure accuracy (about 1 mistake for every  10,000 amino acids), protein synthesis is  performed in the ribosome A typical eucaryotic cell contains millions of  ribosomes in its cytoplasm
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The Genetic Code
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Reading Frames During translation,  the sequence of  nucleotides is read  by the ribosome in  the 5’ to 3’ direction  in sequential sets of  3 nucleotides.
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tRNAs tRNAs are synthesized by RNA  polymerase III tRNAs are used as adaptors to add each  amino acid in the correct sequence until a  stop codon is encountered A tRNA molecule is held at the A- and P-  sites of a ribosome only if its anticodon  forms base pairs with a complementary  codon on the mRNA molecule
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tRNA Four short segments of the folded tRNA are double-helical
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