biomaterials 1&2 - Biomaterials: brief historical...

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Unformatted text preview: Biomaterials: brief historical overview Novel idea: replace from outside the structure-function of the body Necessity 1960s An evolution occurred: combine devices and materials w/ cell biology An off the shelf approach Significant shifts in thinking: 1 st generation : InertTitanium, Teflon, PMMA (pre-1970s ) 2 nd generation : Bioactive...controlled delivery and resorbable materials (1970s ) Seminal work on polymer erosion..birth of tissue engineering 3 rd generation : Targetedprecise interactions w/ cells and proteins (1990s ) All materials are now tailored-bulk and surface Biomaterials: brief historical overview Materials have evolved to generate bioactivity and specificity Long-term successes not just due to advances in materials: 1. Better surgical techniques- sterilization, less invasive procedures, patient monitoring 1. Greater knowledge of biology- better understanding of host response 1. Development of regulations and standards Current Definition: Bio material Buddy Ratner (textbook): Biomaterials are materials (synthetic and natural; solid and sometimes liquid) that are used in medical devices or in contact with biological systems. NIH definition: Any substance (other than a drug) or combination of substances, synthetic or natural in origin, which can be used for replacing any tissue, organ , or function of the body So what is the role of the bioengineer in the field of biomaterials? Role of the bioengineer? Responsible for the alterations to the composition of a material and/or its fabrication process in order to control the biologic response and produce an implant with maximal biocompatibility What is biocompatibility? Definition: Bio Bio compatibility compatibility Williams 1987 (textbook): Williams 1987 (textbook): The ability to perform with an The ability to perform with an appropriate appropriate host response host response in a in a specific specific application. application. There is no absolute biocompatibility" and some responses by the There is no absolute biocompatibility" and some responses by the body to the implant may be OK (appropriate or favorable) and body to the implant may be OK (appropriate or favorable) and some may not some may not What governs materials choice? Implantation site and purpose of the material Factors that may be important in deciding suitability: 1.Type of material metal, polymer, ceramic, composite 2.Shape of the implant. complexity of structure 3.Material degradation characteristics. permanent, resorbable, wear properties 4.Surface chemical and physical properties.. functional groups, roughness 5.Bulk chemical and mechanical properties.. composition, mechanical strength ALWAYS KEEP IN MIND THE FINAL LOCATION + APPLICATION SELECT THE MATERIAL AND PROCESSING TO OPTIMIZE PERFORMANCE Example Problem #1 Calcification of implant materials for bone applications is sought for...
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This note was uploaded on 02/22/2010 for the course BE 2600 taught by Professor Gilbert during the Spring '08 term at Michigan Technological University.

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biomaterials 1&2 - Biomaterials: brief historical...

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