Lecture11ARome - Lecture 11A: Rome We move now to the next...

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Lecture 11A: Rome We move now to the next crucial civilization to have made a lasting mark on Western European civilizations. The art, architecture, law code, and political style of Rome profoundly impacted the development of medieval Europe. Of course, Rome itself was so incredibly influenced by Greek art, religion, architecture, and politics that it also provides continuity of that tradition. Also, Rome will nurture the early Christian movement and provide the base from which the Roman Catholic Church will develop. Rome is located in Italy. Italy is divided into geographic regions. The Apennines form a great central mountain range. The zigzagging of the Apennines creates 3 natural lowland regions; the Po valley in the north, Apulia in the south, and the West districts of Etruria, Latium, and Campania. The western districts had the richest agricultural land and natural lines of communication. Rome had the benefit of being in the central location of communication routes and in the position to prevent movement north or south or from the Mediterranean into the interior, but it was vulnerable to attack from many sides. Diplomacy was an early important element in Rome’s dealings with its neighbors as it developed the principle of divide and conquer. People of Italy Diverse peoples inhabited the area we call Italy. Celts infiltrated across the Alps in the early 5 th century bce. Then massive numbers of Celts arrived around 400 bce settled in Po valley and expanded southward along Adriatic Coast. Greeks had been in Italy and Sicily since the 8 th century, mainly along the southern coasts. The Phoenicians were influential in Etruria. The Interior of Italy was mainly in the hands of 2 groups; Indo-European speakers called the Venetians of the Po, the Oscans and Umbrians of central and east coast, and the Latins of the west and then the Non-Indo speaking Etruscans, a small number of Apulia, and Ligurians. The Oscans were the most widespread, the Celts the most dangerous. The Latins were confined between the Tiber River and Campania. The Oscans and Celts were pre-state tribal people, who only slowly became partially urban, but they had a significant military, and their raiding caused urban populations of other areas problems Etruscans The Etruscans were an extremely wealthy and influential group inhabiting Italy. We first find evidence of them around the year 700 bce. Scholars are still debating whether the Etruscans emerged from the earlier Italian culture called the Villanovan, Urnfield culture, found also in the Alps, or if they moved into the area and mixed with the native group? Herodotus believed the Etruscans were Lydians. They certainly had undeniable affinities with the east. They built tholos tombs, practiced divination with animal remains, and had artistic similarities with eastern groups. Neither scenario is entirely convincing; more evidence needs to be gathered. They were organized in a loose federation that met annually to plan joint action and religious festivals. Traditionally these tribes numbered 12, but at
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This note was uploaded on 02/22/2010 for the course SOCIOLOGY 120 taught by Professor Card during the Spring '10 term at Grossmont.

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Lecture11ARome - Lecture 11A: Rome We move now to the next...

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