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The Main Trends of Pre-Industrial Social Evolution Hunter-Gatherer Hunting of wild animals using spears, spear throwers, bows and arrows, nets and traps. Gathering of wild plant food using a digging stick. Fishing often undertaken, and in some environments may be a principal subsistence activity. Small nomadic bands. Normally some type of communal ownership . Vital resources that sustain life ownership by the entire community, and no person may deprive others of the full right to use these resources. Generalized reciprocity. Sharing and generosity pervasive and compulsory social habits. Typically no stratification . Inequalities based on age, sex, and personal characteristics (e.g., courage, hunting skill) but these are inequalities of prestige and influence only. Egalitarian social organization. General equality permeates entire society (egalitarianism) . Primitive communism. Band : Primary political role is that of headman, with informal leadership capacity and no power over others. Simple Horticultural Small-scale gardening, often using slash-and-burn cultivation . Men prepare garden sites, but women commonly the principal cultivators. Gardens moved frequently, and fallow periods generally long (e.g., 20 to 30 years). Sedentary villages. Typically
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This note was uploaded on 02/22/2010 for the course SOCIOLOGY 120 taught by Professor Card during the Spring '10 term at Grossmont.

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content - The Main Trends of Pre-Industrial Social...

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