ch5_Dev_09_21_09

ch5_Dev_09_21_09 - Chapter 5 Nature, Nurture, and Human...

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Nature, Nurture, and Human Development Chapter 5
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Prenatal Development Risk and Resilience Genes and Chromosomes
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Prenatal Development Germinal Period Conception to 14 days Embryonic Period 2 weeks to 8 weeks Fetal Period 8 weeks to birth
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Teratogens and Effects External agent that can pass through the placenta and negatively affect the developing embryo or fetus
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Teratogens and Effects Critical Period: Organ system affected most during its critical period Dosage/Duration: The greater exposure and longer the exposure the more serious the damage Genetic Makeup: Susceptibility to harm affected by genetic makeup of child and mother Environment: Effects of the teratogen depend on the pre/postnatal environment
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Teratogens and Effects Same effect can be caused by different teratogens i.e., tobacco and alcohol may result in low birth weight Single teratogen can cause a variety of effects i.e., alcohol use may result in small head, heart defects, and intellectual retardation Higher "doses" increase degree of serious damage i.e., binge drinking is worse than having a drink a day
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Examples of Teratogens Thalidomide DES Rubella Nicotine Nutrition Stress Noise
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Barriers to Prenatal Care Socio-demographic correlates -- (health care not equally available to all) Poverty Geography (inner-city or rural) Minority Age (very young or older) Unmarried Less education (< High School)
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System Barriers Inadequacies in private insurance policies (wait periods, deductibles, coverage limits) No Coverage Transportation problems Difficult getting child care for other children Clinic hours inconvenient for mothers working outside the home Long waits to see physician Poor communication (language/culture barriers)
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ch5_Dev_09_21_09 - Chapter 5 Nature, Nurture, and Human...

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