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1 Mechanisms of Evolution: Microevolution Natural selection works on individuals , yet populations evolve Population: same species, same place, same time Species: can breed and produce fertile offspring Microevolution= changes in a population’s gene pool from one generation to the next -if NO change occurs in gene frequency= genetic equilibrium Gene pool : all the genes in the entire population Two factors can cause microevolution: I Mutation/ New Genetic Variation II Evolutionary Mechanisms/ Alteration of existing genetic variation I. Mutation: unpredictable change in DNA- sources of NEW genetic variation -only mutations in sex cells are inherited -mutations change gene pool ° increase genetic variation that natural selection can act upon -rare, low rate of occurrence, not a major factor in microevolution http://www2.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc /2004-06/25/content_342496.htm Human brain size: ASPM gene -contains repeats of isoleucine and glutamine, 75 letters long -in human, 74 repeats -in mouse, 61 repeats -in fruit fly, 24 repeats -in nematode, 2 repeats ASPM regulates # times neuronal stem cells divide ° # neurons in adult brain
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