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ANTH260 Final Review

ANTH260 Final Review - ANTH260 Review Morgans Three Stages...

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ANTH260 Review Morgan’s Three Stages of Societal Evolution – 1 These are savagery (Australians/Polynesians), barbarism (Pueblos), and civilization (Greeks/Latins/Europeans). Further, he divided each societal form into varying stages of technical innovation. He proposed a unilinear scheme of evolution, through which he believed societies progressed from primitive to modern. His evolutionary views of the three major stages of social evolution: savagery, barbarism, and civilization, were expounded in Ancient Society . They were further divided and defined by technological inventions, like use of fire, bow, pottery in the savage era; domestication of animals, agriculture, metalworking in the barbarian era; and development of alphabet and writing in the civilization era. (In part, this was an effort to create a structure for North American history that was comparable for the three ages of European pre-history, developed by scholars in Denmark during these years.) [2] Morgan introduced a critical link between social progress and technological progress. Morgan viewed technological progress as a force behind social progress. Further, he believed that changes in technology lead to social change, in social institutions, organisations or ideologies. His theory contributed to the contemporary development of concepts about social Darwinism. [3] Achieved / Ascribed Status – 9 Ascribed status = a social position that a person is born into Examples – sister, African American, daughter, 19 yrs old, female Achieved status = a social position that a person chooses or achieves on his or her own Examples – student, friend, employee, dorm resident, classmate Open / Closed System of Stratification – 6 How do societies rank people in social hierarchies? Social Stratification Power = the ability to control resources in one’s own interest Wealth = the accumulation of material resources or access to the means of producing these resources Prestige = social honor or respect Stratification systems… Closed system = based primarily on ascription Open system = based primarily on achievement Class System Occupation, education, lifestyle, etc.
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Achieved status Marriage between classes allowed Continuum More fluid Movement allowed Caste System Hereditary Ascribed status Endogamous prohibitions of contact Rigid social boundaries Permanent Movement not allowed Globalization – 19 Defn - The accelerating interdependence of nations, regions, and communities in a world system linked economically and through mass media and modern transportation systems How does Globalization impact Culture?
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