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# AaBb x AaBb - A aBb x AaBb 2 The Mul tiplicative Law of...

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AaBb x AaBb 2. The Multiplicative Law of Probability If E1 and E2 are independent events, meaning the occurrence of one event does not affect the chance of occurrence of the second event, the probability that they will both happen is the product of their individual probabilities P(E1 and E2) = P(E1) x P(E2) Example: P (HT) = One genetic application: consider the genotype AaBbCcDd What proportion of all gametes from such individuals will consist of the genotype ABCD? These rules of probability can be used to mathematically predict the expected outcome of a genetic cross. The multiplication rule for independent events applies whenever nonallelic gene pairs are randomly associated in the gametes produced by the parents. For example, consider the dihybrid cross AaBbCcDd x AaBbCcDd: What proportion of the progeny of this cross is expected to be A-B-C-D- in phenotype? B. Probability Distributions 1. Binomial Distribution Sometimes, it is useful to determine probabilities associated with repeated trials.

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