Final Lecture Notes

Final Lecture Notes - Global War War Changes in the 20 th...

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Unformatted text preview: Global War War Changes in the 20 th Century Causes: Alliances created by Nationalism o Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy vs. o Britain, France, Russia, and eventually U.S. No longer confined to battlefield o Goes to the cities targets civilians, most causalities happen Total energies of citizens of all nations involved Fought to point of exhaustion o Particularly true of WWI and WWII Destroyed four empires: Ottoman, Russian, German, Austro-Hungarian WWI = War of Attrition Trench warfare: Double line eventually extended from Swiss border to North Sea and in 3.5 years never moved more than 10 miles in either direction Weapons of Defense: machine gun, barbed wire, trench Irony (Paul Fussell): Only way to recall, locate, explain or express any event from past became by seeing it ironically ghastly disproportion between end and means o Means war; ends using human beings as fire Cost of WWI 13 million dead; 20 million wounded eviscerated an entire generation Destroyed tragedy of death o not only did the young suffer in the war, but every abstraction that would have sustained and given dignity to their suffering. The war made traditional morality unacceptable. (John Peale Bishop) Survivors left to face world without values Aims of WWI In WWI nations fighting over relative (imperial) roles in world o Who has the biggest colonies? Roles defined by shifts in boundaries, colonial possessions, military power Neither side sought massive consequences Different causes o Resentment of Versailles Treaty o World depression o Demoralization of England and France o Japanese search for raw materials o Rise of Japanese militarism Aims of WWII (different and much more global than aims of WWI) Struggle not for control of resources and territory only but who should control them, who gets to say mine, what happens to others when someone says yours is mine WWII: seeking reordering of globe Reordering would require extermination of whole peoples and enslavement of tens of millions of others WWII compared to WWI Ranged over all oceans and continents Extent of physical destruction and loss of life catastrophic: causalities double to triple those of WWI Financial Cost: bankrupted Germany, Japan, Italy; drained Soviet economy; forces England to give up empire Only U.S. came out of war much stronger than before Differing Objectives of WWII Japanese Objectives o Creation of empire in east, southeast, and south Asia reaching to Western hemisphere o As in Nanking, Korea, Disastrous for oppressed German objectives o Demographic reordering Eurasian landmass with tens of millions slaughtered, sterilized, starved to death o New empire extended to Africa, Middle East, West American objectives o Unconditional surrender Complete admission of guilt Fascism Defined Form of political behavior marked by obsessive preoccupation with community decline, humiliation,...
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Final Lecture Notes - Global War War Changes in the 20 th...

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