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SSCI 300_Week Five Class Seven_Fall 2008_note version

SSCI 300_Week Five Class Seven_Fall 2008_note version -...

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Unformatted text preview: SSCI 300 Non-Western World Fall 2008 Kevin E. Grisham, ABD College of Social & Behavioral Sciences California State Univ., San Bernardino Points to Be Covered The North-South Gap The NorthPersistence of the NorthPersistence NorthSouth Gap Conflict & Poverty: A Conflict Potential Explanation The North & South Gap What is It? 1 The North-South Gap North = Developed North World South = South Developing World Growing gap Growing between the developed & developing world • Internal inequality • Global inequality 2003 Human Development Index 2 The Global South Today The North & South The gap has not decreased substantially. • Internal gaps in some states has decreased. • Some developed states has grown substantially. Example: China Example: Inequality in Income (2007) Top 5 GDPs per capita Top • Qatar -- $87,600 USD • Luxembourg -- $79,400 USD • Bermuda -- $69,900 USD • Kuwait -- $55,900 USD • Norway -- $53,300 USD Lowest 5 GDPs per capita Lowest • Zimbabwe -- $200 USD • DR of Congo -- $300 USD • Burundi -- $300 USD • Liberia -- $500 USD • Somalia -- $600 USD United States -- $45,800 The Persistence of the Gap Population growth Population • Economies have grown, but populations have grown more. • Birthrates have grown faster in the developing world. • Impact on resource availability 3 Highs & Lows of Population Growth Highest fertility Highest rates • Mali – 7.34 • Niger – 7.29 • Uganda – 6.81 Lowest fertility Lowest rates • Taiwan – 1.13 • South Korea – 1.20 • Lithuania – 1.22 The Persistence of the Gap (con’t.) (con’ The role of education The • Poverty & low literacy levels have been linked. • Higher literacy leads to: Economic Economic development FDI FDI Better health care Better Population control Population 4 The Persistence of the Gap (con’t.) (con’ Malnutrition & its Malnutrition connection to poverty • “Medical condition caused by an improper or insufficient diet.” diet.” Indicator of poverty & Indicator leads to poverty • Lack of energy = Economic development • Illness linked to malnutrition = drain on society’s resources society’ Famine Famine • “A situation in which food supplies are suddenly reduced, which causes a large number of deaths.” deaths.” Famine & Food Insecurity Factors leading to famines: Factors • Natural Disasters Examples: Examples: • Droughts • Floods • Manmade Disasters Examples: Examples: • Wars (Interstate & Intrastate) • Refugee Issues Food Security Food • Availability of food • Access to the food 5 The Persistence of the Gap (con’t.) (con’ Health care & Health poverty • Drains the energy needed for economic development • Places drain on resources to take care of ill people • Example: AIDS, Africa, & AIDS, poverty 6 Internal Gaps Between the Rich & Poor Gap between the rich and Gap poor • Developed countries • Developing countries Governmental Governmental arrangements of power (apartheid) Cultural divisions Cultural • Caste System Measurement of internal Measurement disparity • Gini Index Higher number, the Higher greater the gap between rich and poor What Has Lead to the North-South Gap? 7 Causes of Gap Between North & South Colonialism & its Colonialism legacy Current structure of Current the world economy • New International Economic Order (NIEO) [1974] Greater globalization Greater of world economy Overpopulation Overpopulation Bad government Bad policies Political & economic Political instability Natural Disasters Natural Developing States Developing States DEPENDENCY THEORY Developed States Developing States Developing States 8 Conflict & Poverty: A Potential Explanation 9 Conflict & Poverty Scholarship Scholarship explaining conflict (inter-state conflict (inter& intra-state intraconflict) varies • Environmental factors (cultural arguments, institutions, & resources) • Individual decisiondecisionmaking (acquisition of power & goods) Resource Scarcity, Demographics, & Conflict Reverend Thomas Reverend Malthus & An Essay An on the Principles of Population (1798) • Thesis: Population growth would exceed the planet’s planet’ capability to sustain the population Neo-Malthusians & Neopressure on the world’s poor world’ 10 Theories Connecting Demographic/Environmental Change & Conflict Simple scarcity & Simple Transboundary Migration as explanations of inter-state conflict interDeprivation Theory Deprivation & State Failure Theory • Explanations of intra-state conflict intra- Deprivation Hypothesis Population growth Population + Environmental degradation + Maldistributions of natural resources = Conflict Greater Greater competition for goods leads to greater inter-group interstruggles 11 State Failure Hypothesis Population & Population environmental pressures lead to conflict. State capability to State manage potential intra-state conflict intraIntra-elite Intracompetition (Effect the costs of scarce goods) Additional Theories of Conflict Honey Pot Hypothesis Honey • Large amount of natural resources & groups compete for control of these resources • Control resource-rich areas of a state resource- Resource Curse Hypothesis Resource • Rich in one area of resources leads to complete dependence on the export of this good. • Lack of diversity in a state’s economy. state’ Additional Theories of Conflict (con’t.) (con’ Political Ecology Political • No single variable leading to conflict. • Three potential explanations concerning conflict & resource abundance Unequal Resource Unequal Distribution & Rebellious Groups (Distribution Hypothesis) Fight breaks out over Fight control of resources Economic & political Economic development is distorted by abundance of a given good 12 Next Time in Class Review for Midterm Review Examination Current Events Current 13 ...
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