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SSCI 300_Week Four Class Six_Fall 2008_note version

SSCI 300_Week Four Class Six_Fall 2008_note version - SSCI...

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Unformatted text preview: SSCI 300 Non-Western World Fall 2008 Kevin E. Grisham, ABD College of Social & Behavioral Sciences California State Univ., San Bernardino Points to Be Covered Forms of Interdependence Forms Proponents of Globalization Proponents Opponents of Globalization Opponents The North-South Gap The NorthPersistence of the NorthPersistence NorthSouth Gap Forms of Interdependence Economic Economic Interdependence Environmental Environmental Interdependence Cultural Cultural Interdependence 1 Economic Interdependence (con’t.) (con’ International Economic System Today International • Creation of regional trading systems Examples Examples • Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) • Greater Arab Free Trade Area (GAFTA) • African Economic Community (AEC) • Mercosur (Mercado Común del Sur – Comú Southern Common Market) • Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Investment by individuals in one country in Investment another country Physical investment or acquiring some Physical interests in another economy outside your own. Linkage to Multi-National Corporations (MNCs) Linkage Multi(MNCs) Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) 2 African Economic Community (AEC) Mercosur – RTA (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay) Environmental Interdependence Linkage between Linkage international economic integration & environmental concerns • Economic development = Enviromental impact Types of Goods Types • Private Goods vs Public Goods Internationalization & Internationalization the Environment • Creation of the UNEP • Kyoto Protocol & greenhouse emissions 3 Cultural Interdependence Technological Technological advancements Spread of cultures across Spread national borders • Example Coca-Cola & Nescafe in CocaYemen Kobe Bryant in China Kobe • Travel & communications Issue of “cultural Issue colonialism” colonialism” Migration of dreams & Migration relative deprivation theory • Impact on cultures in developing world • Saudi Arabia & Institute for Science and Technology Carl’s Jr Restaurant in Tehran 4 Proponents of Globalization Why is globalization good? Why • Increases economic prosperity for the developing world Idea of neoliberalism Idea Example: China Example: • Promotes civil liberties Advancement of Advancement human rights, globally • Efficient allocation of resources • Sharing of ideas across state boundaries Opponents of Globalization Are anti-globalization Are antiindividuals really antiantiglobal? • Building a bridge across the world (Stiglitz & (Stiglitz Charlton, 2005) Criticisms of Criticisms globalization • • • • Unfair trade Unfair labor practices Outsourcing “Jihad vs McWorld” McWorld” 5 The North & South Gap What is It? The North-South Gap North = Developed North World South = South Developing World Growing gap Growing between the developed & developing world • Internal inequality • Global inequality 6 2003 Human Development Index The Global South Today The North & South The gap has not decreased substantially. • Internal gaps in some states has decreased. • Some developed states has grown substantially. Example: China Example: Inequality in Income (2007) Top 5 GDPs per capita Top • Qatar -- $87,600 USD • Luxembourg -- $79,400 USD • Bermuda -- $69,900 USD • Kuwait -- $55,900 USD • Norway -- $53,300 USD Lowest 5 GDPs per capita Lowest • Zimbabwe -- $200 USD • DR of Congo -- $300 USD • Burundi -- $300 USD • Liberia -- $500 USD • Somalia -- $600 USD United States -- $45,800 7 The Persistence of the Gap Population growth Population • Economies have grown, but populations have grown more. • Birthrates have grown faster in the developing world. • Impact on resource availability Highs & Lows of Population Growth Highest fertility Highest rates • • • Mali – 7.34 Niger – 7.29 Uganda – 6.81 Lowest fertility Lowest rates • • • Taiwan – 1.13 South Korea – 1.20 Lithuania – 1.22 8 The Persistence of the Gap (con’t.) (con’ The role of education The • Poverty & low literacy levels have been linked. • Higher literacy leads to: Economic Economic development FDI FDI Better health care Better Population control Population The Persistence of the Gap (con’t.) (con’ Malnutrition & its Malnutrition connection to poverty • “Medical condition caused by an improper or insufficient diet.” diet.” Indicator of poverty & Indicator leads to poverty • Lack of energy = Economic development • Illness linked to malnutrition = drain on society’s resources society’ Famine Famine • “A situation in which food supplies are suddenly reduced, which causes a large number of deaths.” deaths.” 9 Famine & Food Insecurity Factors leading to famines: Factors • Natural Disasters Examples: Examples: • Droughts • Floods • Manmade Disasters Examples: Examples: • Wars (Interstate & Intrastate) • Refugee Issues Food Security Food • Availability of food • Access to the food The Persistence of the Gap (con’t.) (con’ Health care & Health poverty • Drains the energy needed for economic development • Places drain on resources to take care of ill people • Example: AIDS, Africa, & AIDS, poverty 10 Internal Gaps Between the Rich & Poor Gap between the rich and Gap poor • Developed countries • Developing countries Governmental Governmental arrangements of power (apartheid) Cultural divisions Cultural • Caste System Measurement of internal Measurement disparity • Gini Index Higher number, the Higher greater the gap between rich and poor 11 What Has Lead to the North-South Gap? Causes of Gap Between North & South Colonialism & its Colonialism legacy Current structure of Current the world economy • New International Economic Order (NIEO) [1974] Greater globalization Greater of world economy Overpopulation Overpopulation Bad government Bad policies Political & economic Political instability Natural Disasters Natural Developing States Developing States DEPENDENCY THEORY Developed States Developing States Developing States 12 13 Next Time in Class Connection Between Conflict Connection & Poverty Resources, the Environment, Resources, & Internal Conflict Current Events Current 14 ...
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