SSCI 300_Week Two Class Two_Fall 2008_note version

SSCI 300_Week Two Class Two_Fall 2008_note version - SSCI...

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Unformatted text preview: SSCI 300 Non-Western World Fall 2008 Kevin E. Grisham, ABD College of Social & Behavioral Sciences California State Univ., San Bernardino Points To Be Covered Basic Terms (con’t.) Basic Nationalism: What Is It and How Nationalism: Does It Impact the Developing World? Guest Lecture Guest • Mr. Thomas M. Doyle, University of California, Riverside 1 Basic Terms for the Class State, Nation, Government, & Politics • GOVERNMENT – “Institutions & processes employed by societies to organize their affairs.” (5) – Forms of governments • Power by One • Power by a Few • Power by Many 2 Power by One • Government rules by a hereditary monarch (single leader) • Types of Monarchies – Limited monarchy: Monarch only has ceremonial powers (Japan & the United Kingdom) – Constitutional monarchy: Monarch has only those powers outlined in the constitution (Malaysia & Thailand) • Most have parliament systems – Absolute monarchy: Monarch has absolute power (Saudi Arabia & Brunei) • Consultation in Saudi Arabia (Majlis al-Shura) Power by a Few • Government rules by a nonhereditary single leader or a limited group – Dictatorship • Rule by a single ruler who is not a monarch • Example: Augustus Pinochet & Chile – Oligarchy • Rule by a limited few • Example: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) & Myanmar Monks protesting in Myanmar 3 Rule by the Many • Government rules by majority – Representative Democracy • Individuals are elected to represent the populous • Example: India, Georgia, & South Africa – Centralized vs. Decentralized Distribution of Power Overview of the Non-Western World 4 Latin America • Politically contains thirteen countries – Including the islands between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean – Includes Mexico • Very diverse (Indigenous, Mestizos, Spanish ancestry & African ancestry) • 90% of the population in Latin America is Catholic. – Many other religious minorities exist in the region. 5 Africa • Politically contains 61 territories (53 countries) – Divided into two major areas • North Africa • Sub-Saharan Africa • More than a thousand languages, many religious & ethnic groups – Vertical & Horizontal Diversity 6 Asia • Politically contains 37 countries – Contains 3/5ths of the world’s population • Diversity of cultures, religions, & languages – Includes Russian, Chinese, Japanese, & Hindi • Beginnings of civilization • Foundations for some technology – Paper 7 Middle East • What is the “Middle East?” – Eurocentric Term – Other terms: the Orient, Near East, Nearer East, & Southwest Asia • Politically contains approximately 15 countries – Issue of Palestine • Birthplace of the world’s three monotheistic religions – Judaism, Christianity & Islam 8 WHAT IS NATIONALISM AND HOW DOES IT IMPACT THE DEVELOPING WORLD? Creation of an Identity How does one identify themselves? – Identity created from many different sources – Tend to rely on these various sources when acting out behavior – Identity linked to action Extreme action: Communal violence Moderate action: Singing the national anthem at a ballgame 9 Multiple Layers of Identity Family – Tribal Issues Religion – Various sects within religious groups Ethnicity Individuality Nationality – Nation vs. Nation-State Nation- Profession Nationalism What is it? – “A state of mind or feeling based on belonging to a nation.” nation.” What bonds people to a nation? – Bonds of nationalism Common territory Common language Common culture Common enemies 10 Forms of Nationalism Types of nationalism: – Civic Example: Democracies vs. Non-democracies Non– Ethnic Example: Persian vs. Arab – Cultural Example: Asian cultural practices – Religious Example: Hindi vs. Muslim communities – Ideological Example: Republican versus Nationalist in Northern Ireland Mural in Ballymurphy, Belfast, Northern Ireland Impact on the Developing World Effects of nationalism – “Rally around the flagpole” effect flagpole” – Non-violent divisions Nonbetween people Separate neighborhoods – Competition between nations of people – Calls for independence & challenge to colonialism & globalization – Violence between nations 11 Guest Lecture on Clans, Tribes, & Chiefdoms Mr. Thomas M. Doyle Doctoral Candidate at University of California, Riverside – Specialist on political anthropology – Specialist on Central Asia – Specialist on the role of tribes, clans, & chiefdoms Human Geography: Clans, Tribes, and Chiefdoms prepared for prepared Non-Western World NonSocial Science 300 California State University San Bernardino September 30, 2008 12 What is a clan? A clan is an extended family. This extension occurs as a result of marriage and/or birth. Clan elders do NOT govern clan members. Elders act only as counselors or advisors. What is a tribe? A tribe is an association of clans which may or may not be related by biology. may Tribal leaders are selected by a complex set of “voting” councils. Tribal leadership does have marginal control marginal of the clans (aka sub-tribes) and all tribe members. 13 What is a chiefdom? A chiefdom is an association of clans and/or tribes which may or may not be related by biology but are related by economics. Chiefs are elected by formal election. Chiefs have absolute control of the clan and tribe members. Super chiefs have vertical control over chiefs. Four basic types of clans/tribes/chiefdoms Four Transhumance nomads Pastoral nomads Sedentary horticulturalists Tradesmen 14 OK, so what are the differences in these four and why are the differences important to students of the Non-Western World? Transhumance nomads move constantly across vast distances. They select a central leader through a process of informal consensus. Some clans and tribes have a “leader” on a permanent basis while other clans and tribes have a “leader” only during times of strife. These nomads recognize “historical” state boundaries in their search for water and grazing. 15 Pastoral nomads live part of the year in villages and small towns. The remainder of the year a portion of the male nomads move the livestock to prearranged grazing areas while the females remain in the villages raising crops. Pastoral nomads have a central elder in each clan and several sub-elders who emerge to positions of emerge authority through no known overt political process (aka informal consensus). Sedentary horticulturalists live in villages and small towns. These clans or tribes raise perennial crops (such as apples, grapes, and nuts) and/or annual crops (such as buckwheat, cotton, and potatoes). Sometimes they maintain a few animals for consumption. These folks have central leadership very similar to pastoral nomads but there is sometimes a formal process of voting. Additionally, there may be some form of structured religious leadership parallel to/or overlapping the political leadership. 16 Tradesmen may be sedentary, as in the case of merchants in towns and cities. However, tradesmen may also be transhumance, as in the case of caravanserai. Additionally, there caravanserai are some tradesmen who are similar to the pastoral nomads, such as those involved in local salt or metals mining trade. Clans or tribes may even be divided by their respective modes of production while maintaining close family ties. Leadership may emerge, be elected by clan membership, or elected by the council. Multiple Layers of Identity • Clan, or tribe, or chiefdom? • Religious, or ethnic, or economic? Where does “national” identity fit? Is there room for state identity? 17 Imagine the difficulties trying to govern a state with all the clan and/or tribe variables just mentioned. Let’s briefly examine some of the internal and external factors affecting the decisions of state leaders. Internal Factors Affecting State Governance: • Nomadic clan movement within the state • Sedentary clan claims to water and land (Potential conflict here?) • Collection of demographic data • Allocation of resources 18 External Factors Affecting State Governance: • Nomadic clan movement across state boundaries • Periodic tradesmen’s movement from state to state • Clan conflicts crossing state boundaries, such as “blood feuds” (More potential conflict?) Iran • Iran is a multinational state consisting of six distinct groups with multiple ethnic backgrounds • While most of these communities celebrate tribe governance, one of them observes clan control • There are transhumance nomads (from Turkey {Bakhtyari} and Afghanistan {Baloch}) migrating twice each year • There are pastoral nomads moving from winter to summer grazing 19 Sudan • Sudan is a multinational state consisting of a dozen (or more) distinct ethnic groups • Additionally, the state is divided between transhumance nomads, pastoral nomads, sedentary horticulturalists, and tradesmen • The state is further divided between tribe, clan, AND chiefdom governance • Sudan also has Arab Muslims, African Muslims, and Roman Catholics 20 Nepal – a communist state? 21 Saudi Arabia - an “absolute” monarchy? 22 What does clan governance of a state look like on a map? Conclusions • Clans, tribes, and chiefdoms are an integral part of most Non-Western States • Ignoring clans, tribes, and chiefdoms as viable social, economic, and political communities leads to incomplete and inaccurate analysis • Using clans, tribes, and chiefdoms as the unit levels of analysis can be very revealing • This analysis is complex and time consuming 23 ...
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