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Nov 12 2009 - November 2009 Biogeography(BIEB 132 Has tings...

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Lecture 15, 12 November 2009, Biogeography (BIEB 132: Hastings) Readings: 1) MacPherson, E. 2002. Large-scale species richness gradients in the Atlantic Ocean. Proceeding of the Royal Society, London B 269:1715-1720. 2) Bowen, B. W. & Grant. 1997. Phylogeography of the sardines ( Sardinops spp.): assessing biogeographic models and population histories in temperate upwelling zones. Evolution 51:1601- 1610. 3) Levinton Chapter 3, pp. 61-68; Chapter 17, pp. 492-515. Biogeography : Study of the historical and present-day factors determining the distribution and abundance of organisms. Two types of questions Pattern : Where do organisms occur and what is their abundance? Process: How did they get where they are? (Evolution); What factors limit their distribution and abundance? (Ecology) The start of global oceanography and marine biogeography: H.M.S. Challenger voyage (1872- 1876) gave the first global picture of the oceans and some it organisms. Traversed 68,890 nautical miles, including the North and South Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and traveled north of the limits of drift ice in the North Atlantic polar seas and south of the Antarctic Circle. The Report of the Scientific Results of the Exploring Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger occupied 50 volumes, described by John Murray in 1895 as "the greatest advance in the knowledge of our planet since the celebrated discoveries of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries" I. Marine Biogeography is similar to terrestrial biogeography, with some important differences Dispersal is often easier for marine organisms, especially those with larval stages: long- lived larvae are often able to disperse over broad habitat gaps A. Short-term ecological processes affecting regional biodiversity 1) Species interactions with the physical environment: requirements; tolerances
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