4_Decent with modifications_part 1

4_Decent with modifications_part 1 - 1 Biological...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Biological Evolution (Part I) • D escent with modification and often D iversification iversification • Change over time (generations) and often branching of lineages branching of lineages 2 Biological Evolution Heritable changes in the characteristics of a population that transcend the lifetime of individuals transcend the lifetime of individuals can be passed on by heredity many aspects of which are subject to evolution populations populations evolve evolve over generations over generations 3 Ch. 22 "Both sides ought to be properly taught . . . so people can understand what the debate is about…” George Bush, 2005 4 5 6 “Nothing in biology makes sense except In the light of evolution ”-Theodosius Dobzhansky, 1973 7 Greek Philosophers: Plato • the world we observe is a shadowy representation of an ideal transcendental world – world of fixed essences (“ideas in the mind of God”) • Creates framework for thinking about biological diversity – The world follows a plan and we can know that plan – Nothing changes – Forms of organisms are continuous – These forms can be arranged linearly from most imperfect to most perfect. 8 Early Ideas of Evolution Darwin was not the first to propose that life on this planet evolved! 9 Several ancient Greeks had evolutionary ideas • Empedocles believed plants came first, then animals • Developed a theory of struggle among animals that foreshadows natural selection Empedocles ~490-430 BC Lucretius, 95-54 BC • Lucretius also developed a “Survival of the Fittest” idea • “I cannot understand why you scientific people make such a fuss about Darwin. Why, it's all in Lucretius!” - poet Matthew Arnold in 1871 10 Some argued that life was unchangeable • Noted scale naturae ( Scale of Nature ) • However, he felt that each life form was perfect and unchangeable Aristotle 384-322 BC Aristotle, believed life forms were fixed but occurred over a range 11 Greek Philosophers: Aristotle-Species have fixed properties-Life is organized on a scale ( Scala naturae ) and organisms do not switch rungs. 12 Linnaeus – Natural Theology School • Unitas in omni specie ordinem ducit (The invariability of species is the condition for order [in nature]) • Developed nested classification system • Interpreted organismal adaptations as evidence that the Creator had designed each species for a specific purpose Systema Naturae , 1758 13 Natural Theology School • Science and Religion inextricably linked as...
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4_Decent with modifications_part 1 - 1 Biological...

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