Chapter 24The Origin of Species/Speciation2Species = fundamental unit of organization in nature(unit of classification and rank)•Ornithologist Ernst Mayr identified 137 birds in Papua New Guinea•Native Papuans already had names for 136 species3Concept 24.1: The biological species concept• The biological species concept states that a species is a group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce viable, fertile offspring; they do not breed successfully with other populations•Gene flow between populations holds the phenotype of a population together(emphasizes reproductive isolation)4Species Concepts•Morphological: defines a species by structural features (different species look different from each other)•Paleontological: focuses on morphologically discrete species known only from the fossil record•Ecological: (habitat) views a species in terms of its ecological niche•Phylogenetic: defines a species as a set of organisms with a unique genetic history•Biological: actually or potentially capable of interbreeding (e.g. all dogs, all pigeons, etc)•Physicological/biochemical: organisms groups by physiological role (e.g. early microbiology)
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