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6_Speciation 2009-1

6_Speciation 2009-1 - Chapter 24 The Origin of...

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Chapter 24 The Origin of Species/Speciation 2 Species = fundamental unit of organization in nature (unit of classification and rank) Ornithologist Ernst Mayr identified 137 birds in Papua New Guinea Native Papuans already had names for 136 species 3 Concept 24.1: The biological species concept • The biological species concept states that a species is a group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce viable, fertile offspring; they do not breed successfully with other populations Gene flow between populations holds the phenotype of a population together (emphasizes reproductive isolation) 4 Species Concepts Morphological : defines a species by structural features (different species look different from each other) Paleontological : focuses on morphologically discrete species known only from the fossil record Ecological : (habitat) views a species in terms of its ecological niche Phylogenetic : defines a species as a set of organisms with a unique genetic history Biological : actually or potentially capable of interbreeding (e.g. all dogs, all pigeons, etc) Physicological/biochemical : organisms groups by physiological role (e.g. early microbiology)
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