11_ConsGen

11_ConsGen - Conservation Genetics Chapter 56 (note change...

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Chapter 56 (note change from syllabus) Conservation Genetics 2 • Conservation biology is a young field that integrates: – Ecology – Behavioral ecology – Physiology – Molecular biology – Genetics –Evo lut ion Conservation Genetics Field has grown rapidly in response to rapid losses of natural biodiversity 3 • Conservation biology • Some depressing statistics – Nearly 50% of land surface has been altered by humans – About 75% of marine fisheries are fully exploited or overexploited – We have increased atmospheric CO 2 concentrations by 30% – Rate of species loss may be as much as 1000x higher than at any point in the past 100,000 years Genetic diversity in a vole population Species diversity in a coastal redwood ecosystem Community and ecosystem diversity across the landscape of an entire region •Genetic diversity –Genetic variation within and between populations •Species diversity –The number and relative abundance of species •Ecosystem diversity –The diversity of
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5 Why preserve biodiversity? 1. For its own sake. 6 Why preserve biodiversity? 2. For our own sake. Rosy periwinkle (medicinal) Pacific Yew Tree Flying fox, Pteropus mariannus (important pollinator and seed disperser) 7 Biodiversity particularly important for ecosystem services – Pollination, nutrient cycling, purification of air and water, detoxification and decomposition of wastes, moderation of weather extremes – Worth ~$33 trillion a year! 8 Four Major Threats to Biodiversity 1. Habitat destruction 2. Introduced/invasive species 3. Overexploitation 4. Disruption of “interaction networks”
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9 1. Habitat Destruction California Gnatcatcher Coastal sage scrub habitat 10 1. Habitat Destruction • Deforestation - removal of trees without sufficient reforestation; results in declines in habitat and biodiversity - In 2030 80% of the world's forests will be gone. 11 Pollution - introduction of pollutants to such a point that effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. - Contributes to coral reef destruction, global warming,…etc 12 •Non-sustainable harvesting/Mining extraction of valuable minerals or other materials from the earth.
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13 Urban development- removal from a natural setting to that of a city or housing area. 14
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11_ConsGen - Conservation Genetics Chapter 56 (note change...

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