Orgo Notes

Orgo Notes - Organic Chemistry I Dr Luke A. Burke Organic...

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Organic Chemistry I Dr Luke A. Burke Organic chemistry is the chemistry of Carbon and its compounds. For many scientists, the study of Organic Chemistry will be their only opportunity to explore synthesis . All sciences use analysis where ideas or things are broken into their constituent parts so that complex systems can be understood. With synthesis , we use simple building blocks and procedures to build more complex systems. This introductory course to organic chemistry will give you the opportunity to use your mind for both synthesis (molecular design) and analysis. Organic molecules constitute the essence of life (fats, sugars, proteins, DNA), and also permeate our everyday lives (cotton, polyester, toothpaste, plastics, etc). Chemistry’s top two commercial fields are organic dominated: Pharmaceuticals and Polymers. Chemistry is different from the other sciences in that its main concern is the synthesis of more complex substances starting from simpler substances, while using analysis to assure that the synthesis has arrived at the correct substance. Organic chemistry is also easy – IF you: don’t fall behind do the problems understand, not memorize Notes are available at: Office: SCI 114B Email: In the interests of continuity of instruction within the department of chemistry, these notes are based on the course given by of Dr. Alex Roche of our department. dd4dada65859d7e40767c1bb98bd7acb4f12390b.doc 1
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Structure of the Atom Atoms consist of: Protons (+ve) Neutrons (neutral) Electrons (-ve) Protons and neutrons are in the nucleus and have similar masses (1800x that of an electron). Atoms with the same number of protons but different neutrons are called ISOTOPES. E.g. 12 C (major isotope) 13 C (~1%, used in carbon NMR) 14 C (radioactive, used in Carbon dating) Almost all the mass of an atom is in the nucleus, but it is the electrons that are involved in the chemical bonding and reactions of an atom. Electronic Structure of the Atom Electrons display wave-particle duality, i.e. they can be found at one spot (particle-like) but they can also pass through certain diffraction gratings without splitting (waves). WAVE FUNCTION: a mathematical function that describes the wavelike behavior of a system (atom, molecule, polymer, protein, etc.) It is given the symbol Ψ (Greek letter psi). ELECTRON DENSITY, which is the probability of finding the electron in a region, can be calculated from the square of Ψ or it can be found experimentally from diffraction techniques. (Theory-Experiment) ORBITAL: is a mathematical function that describes the wavelike behavior of one electron. There is one orbital for each of the energy states that an electron can have in a hydrogen atom, i.e. 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 3d, etc. N.B. A naïve statement that is NOT accepted in this course: “Orbitals are
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This note was uploaded on 02/23/2010 for the course CHEM 202 taught by Professor Smith during the Spring '10 term at Duke.

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Orgo Notes - Organic Chemistry I Dr Luke A. Burke Organic...

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