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International Law Final Review - Traditionallawvs.ModernLaw...

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International Law Final Review Traditional law vs. Modern Law Traditional Law Modern Law - Use of war to occupy territory - War to conduct diplomacy - Individual responsibility did not exists;  immutability ; state for individual commitment - Piracy: individuals not states were liable - No WAR to solve int’l dispute (UN) - Individual responsibility -More rules - Aggravated resp: gross and massive violation of  fundamental int’l law - Ordinary resp: violation of ordinary rules  - Int’l Law Committee (ILC)       * Primary rules: set down duties, obligations,  and rights for state       * Secondary rules: establishes (a) WHEN  there is a violation of Primary rules (rights of  victim) and (b) WHAT is the consequences of  these violations (consequences of delinquent) Ordinary Responsibility Violate spreaded actions; sporadic  - To know if there has been a BREACH of int’l law, something wrong must be committed and it needs 2  different conditions, subjective and objective.   * Subjective elements 1. The immutability to a state of an act committed by a state official or an individual • Immediate; acting in official capacity; we don’t know if it has happened 2. The fault of state official or individual performing that act • Fault is not a necessary element to talk about the violation of int’l law * Objective elements : 1. Inconsistency of int’l obligation 2. Material/ Mortal damage • Never a constitute element of int’l breach • Don’t really need a damage as an objective element • Material: seriously injure/damage in economic and patrimonial interest of a state  (es. Damage to an airport)   • Mortal: breach of states honor / dignity - Some jurists believe the damage is a necessary element to talk about violation - Most jurists believe that the breach already constitutes a damage 3. Absence of any circumstances precluding wrongfulness •Circumstances that once occurring, wrongdoer eliminates state responsibility;  State reforming violation is not considered responsibility at all
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• Circumstances precluding wrongfulness (a) Content of the victim (b) Compliance with Jus Cogens Norms (c) Self defense (d) Counter-majors in respect to an int’l wrong (in response to a previous violation;  breaking a law in response to a law that was already broken) (e) Force majeure (unforeseen event that render the effect of int’l duty Impossible; it state  has not contribute to this) (f) Distress: the author of an activity had no other reasonable way of saving the author’s  life and the one of other people (my life was in danger
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