Mr. DunbarAP European HistoryChapter 29: The Cold War Era and the Emergence of a New EuropeChapter Overview:•Two set of international political relationships have shaped the experience of Europe.oCold War between the US and Soviet UnionoDecolonization•Europe stood divided between the US-‐dominated North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the Sovietdominated Warsaw PactSection One: The Emergence of the Cold War•Section OverviewoTension between the US and Soviet Union had been budding during World War II.oHarry Truman assumed power of the United States after the death of the more sympathetic FranklinRoosevelt.!Many Soviets believed Truman used the atomic bomb to keep the Soviet Union out of the Pacific.oRussia was opposed by the United States when it claimed permanent possession of Poland and Romaniaunder puppet communist governments.oSoviet Union’s attempt to extend its control westward into central Europe and the Balkans and southwardinto the Middle East stirred anxiety throughout the world.!Britain had been the western power responsible for combating Russian aggression; as Britain’spower waned, the United States inherited this task.!The growth in France and Italy of large communist parties—taking orders from Moscow—led theAmericans to believe Stalin was engaged in a worldwide plot to subvert capitalism.oIn 1946, both Stalin and his foreign minister, Vyacheslav Molotov, publicly spoke of western democracies asenemies.•Containment in American Foreign PolicyoAmerican policy of containment in 1947!Resist the extension of Soviet expansion and influence in the expectation that eventually the SovietUnion would collapse from pressure.!Containment led the United States to form overseas alliances, to make formal and informalcommitments to regimes across the world, and to dedicate resources to massive military spending.•This marks a departure from relative isolationism for the United States.oThe Truman Doctrine!Background—since 1944, civil war had been raging in Greece between the royalist governmentrestored by Britain and insurgents supported by communist countries, chiefly Yugoslavia.•On March 12, 1947, President Truman asked congress to provide funds to support Greeceand Turkey, which was then under Soviet pressure to yield control of the Dardanelles, andCongress complied.!Truman’s Doctrine•He advocated a policy of support for “free people who are resisting attempted subjugationby armed minorities or by outside pressures” anywhere in the world.oMarshall Plan!Named after George C. Marshall (1880-‐1959), the secretary of state who introduced it!This program provided broad economic support to European states on the sole condition that theywork together for their mutual benefit.