Outlline ColdWar&GlobalConflict.pdf - Mr Dunbar AP European History Chapter 29 The Cold War Era and the Emergence of a New Europe Chapter Overview

Outlline ColdWar&GlobalConflict.pdf - Mr Dunbar AP European...

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Mr. Dunbar AP European History Chapter 29: The Cold War Era and the Emergence of a New Europe Chapter Overview: Two set of international political relationships have shaped the experience of Europe. o Cold War between the US and Soviet Union o Decolonization Europe stood divided between the US-­‐dominated North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the Soviet dominated Warsaw Pact Section One: The Emergence of the Cold War Section Overview o Tension between the US and Soviet Union had been budding during World War II. o Harry Truman assumed power of the United States after the death of the more sympathetic Franklin Roosevelt. ! Many Soviets believed Truman used the atomic bomb to keep the Soviet Union out of the Pacific. o Russia was opposed by the United States when it claimed permanent possession of Poland and Romania under puppet communist governments. o Soviet Union’s attempt to extend its control westward into central Europe and the Balkans and southward into the Middle East stirred anxiety throughout the world. ! Britain had been the western power responsible for combating Russian aggression; as Britain’s power waned, the United States inherited this task. ! The growth in France and Italy of large communist parties—taking orders from Moscow—led the Americans to believe Stalin was engaged in a worldwide plot to subvert capitalism. o In 1946, both Stalin and his foreign minister, Vyacheslav Molotov, publicly spoke of western democracies as enemies. Containment in American Foreign Policy o American policy of containment in 1947 ! Resist the extension of Soviet expansion and influence in the expectation that eventually the Soviet Union would collapse from pressure. ! Containment led the United States to form overseas alliances, to make formal and informal commitments to regimes across the world, and to dedicate resources to massive military spending. This marks a departure from relative isolationism for the United States. o The Truman Doctrine ! Background—since 1944, civil war had been raging in Greece between the royalist government restored by Britain and insurgents supported by communist countries, chiefly Yugoslavia. On March 12, 1947, President Truman asked congress to provide funds to support Greece and Turkey, which was then under Soviet pressure to yield control of the Dardanelles, and Congress complied. ! Truman’s Doctrine He advocated a policy of support for “free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures” anywhere in the world. o Marshall Plan ! Named after George C. Marshall (1880-­‐1959), the secretary of state who introduced it ! This program provided broad economic support to European states on the sole condition that they work together for their mutual benefit.

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