BB lecture 9-10-08 carbohydrates

BB lecture - Chapter 5 The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Learning objectives There are four major categories of

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Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Learning objectives: • There are four major categories of macromolecules; be able to describe the elemental composition , molecular structure/subunits , and function(s) of each type Know which form polymers from monomer subunits Be able to illustrate a condensation rx and a hydrolysis rx Additionally, for Carbohydrates (pp.68-74) Know the typical functional groups of carbohydrate-type molecules Know examples of monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides Describe the formation of a glycosidic linkage Distinguish between the glycosidic linkages of particular polysaccharides and explain why the difference is significant
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Most macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers Three of the four categories of life’s organic molecules are polymers*: Carbohydrates Proteins Nucleic acids The forth category is Lipids (fats). Lipids are not polymers * A polymer is a molecule made of many repeating subunits called monomers
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Carbohydrates Elements: C, H, and O Functions Energy and storage of energy Structural Carbohydrates include sugars and the polymers of sugars The simplest carbohydrates are monosaccharides, aka simple sugars Carbohydrate polymers are called polysaccharides Different polysaccharides are made from glucose monomers
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Examples of monosaccharides Triose sugars (C 3 H 6 O 3 ) Pentose sugars (C 5 H 10 O 5 ) Hexose sugars (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) H C OH H C OH H C OH H C OH H C OH H C OH HO C H H C OH H C OH H C OH H C OH HO C H HO C H H C OH H C OH H C OH H C OH H C OH H C OH H C OH H C OH H C OH C O C O H C OH H C OH H C OH HO C H H C OH C O H H H H H H H H H H H H H H C C C C O O O O Aldoses Glyceraldehyde Ribose Glucose Galactose Dihydroxyacetone Ribulose Ketoses Fructose Figure 5.3
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Linear and ring forms. Chemical equilibrium between the linear and ring structures greatly favors the formation of rings . To form the glucose ring, carbon 1 bonds to the oxygen attached to carbon 5. Remember the numbering sequence
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This note was uploaded on 02/24/2010 for the course BIO 311 C taught by Professor Mcclelland during the Spring '09 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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BB lecture - Chapter 5 The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Learning objectives There are four major categories of

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