BB lecture 9-3 atoms, bonds

BB lecture 9-3 atoms, bonds - Chapter 2 (pp.31-44):...

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Chapter 2 (pp.31-44): Chemical Context of Life Learning objectives: 1. Know and be able to quantify the number of subatomic particles (main 3). 2. Explain the basis of reactivity of atoms. 3. Understand the basis of different chemical bonds and their relative strengths : non-polar covalent, polar covalent, ionic, & hydrogen. 4. Define ‘ chemical reaction ’ (“rx”): (i.e., The making and/or breaking of chemical bonds.) 6. Know the meaning of “ chemical equilibrium ”. 7. Always remember: Molecules are 3-dimensional , and their ‘function’ is a direct consequence of their structure. Terms to know include: element, compound (cpd), atomic number & at. mass, isotope, potential energy, valence, valence shell, valence electrons, electronegativity, reactants, products, anion, cation, free radical …
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Fig. 2-8 (a) A ball bouncing down a flight of stairs provides an analogy for energy levels of electrons Third shell (highest energy level) Second shell (higher energy level) Energy absorbed First shell (lowest energy level) Atomic nucleus (b) Energy lost
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Fig. 2-9 Hydrogen 1 H Lithium 3 Li Beryllium 4 Be Boron 5 B Carbon 6 C Nitrogen 7 N Oxygen 8 O Fluorine 9 F Neon 10 Ne Helium 2 He Atomic number Element symbol Electron- distribution diagram Atomic mass 2 He 4.00 First shell Second shell Third shell Sodium 11 Na Magnesium 12 Mg Aluminum 13 Al Silicon 14 Si Phosphorus 15 P Sulfur 16 S Chlorine 17 Cl Argon 18 Ar
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The types of chemical bonds we want to know about are……… Covalent Ionic Hydrogen
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Covalent bonds [a strong bond] The sharing of valence electrons Know the difference between a molecule and a compound ( cpd ): A cpd is a fixed ratio of 2 or more kinds of elements A molecule is 2 or more atoms covalently bonded together Figure 2.11 Is “salt”, example NaCl, a molecule?
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Atoms held together by covalent bonds are sharing electrons to ‘fill’ vacancies in their valence shell by … A single bond the sharing of one pair of valence electrons A double bond the sharing of two pairs of valence electrons A triple bond - the sharing of…. ???
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Fig. 2-14-2 Na Cl Na Cl Na Sodium atom Chlorine atom Cl Na + Sodium ion (a cation) Cl Chloride ion (an anion) Sodium chloride (NaCl) From earlier slide: A compound is a fixed ratio of 2 or more kinds of elements Cpds formed by ionic bonds are ionic cpds (aka ‘salts’) Ionic bonds – The attraction of cations and anions to each other [dry, a strong bond - but weakens as it dissolves (hydrates)]
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BB lecture 9-3 atoms, bonds - Chapter 2 (pp.31-44):...

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