p225-fogg - U-II 98.18-23 APRIL 1998 PAPERS Persuasive...

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U-II 98.18-23 APRIL 1998 PAPERS Persuasive Computers: Perspectives and Research Directions BJ Fogg Stanford University Box 8333, Stanford, CA 94309 USA bjfogg@stanford.edu, bjfogg@acm.org www.captology.org ABSTRACT The study of computers as persuasive technologies (called “captology”) was introduced at CHI 97 as a new area of inquiry. This paper proposes definitions, perspectives, and research directions for further investigation of this field A persuasive computer is an interactive technology that attempts to change attitudes or behaviors in some way. Perspective 1 describes how computers can inherit three types of intentionality: endogenous, exogenous, and autogenous. Perspective 2 presents the ‘Functional Triad,” which illustrates that computers can function as persuasive tools, media, and social actors. Perspective 3 presents a ‘levels of analysis” approach for captology, which include varying levels from individual to societal- Perspective 4 suggests a simple method for exploring the design space for persuasive computers. Perspective 5 highlights some ethical issues inherent in persuasive computing. The paper concludes by proposing seven directions for further research and design. Keywords persuasion, captology, media, computers as social actors, ethics, design methods, computers as persuasive technologies INTRODUCTION At CHI 97, a special interest group meeting gathered a number of participants who were interested in exploring the domain of computers and persuasion [a- We agreed to call this area “captology” (built from an acronym for Computers As Persuasive Technologies), with the graphic in Figure 1 serving as a reference point for this domain. The discussion on captology at the CHI 97 SIG proved fruitful and enlightening, with participants concurring that captology was an intriguing area for further research and design. The group also agreed that this domain had not yet been adequately defined or addressed by researchers and practitioners of human- computer interaction. We found that our discussion suffered at times because we lacked key definitions and frameworks for understanding captology. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to contribute to the CHI community’s understanding of persuasive computing by proposing definitions, perspectives, and research directions for the field of captology. l’cnnission to make digimlkurl copies ofzdl or pti of this msterial for pxsonal or clssroom use is gmnted witbout fee provided that the copies are not made or diibuted for profit or commcrcird advantqe, the copy- rightnotic+tbetitleoftbepubliwtionand its&teappear,andnoticek given that copyright is by permission oftbeACh% Inc. To copy otbentise, lo rcpubliih, lo post,on servers or to redistribute to Iii requires -qecific p~mtission andlorfez CHI 9S Los Angeles CA USA copyright 199s o-g9791-975-o19W 4.s.00 Sun Microsystems 901 San Antonio Road, MPK17-105 Palo Alto, CA 94303 USA b.j.fogg@sun.com Figure 1: Captology describes the shaded area where computing technology and persuasion overlap.
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p225-fogg - U-II 98.18-23 APRIL 1998 PAPERS Persuasive...

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