Chapter 7 - HUI 239 CHAPTER VII: The Two Italies and The...

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Unformatted text preview: HUI 239 CHAPTER VII: The Two Italies and The Southern Question The North-South Divide MAGNA GRECIA VIII - V BCE (the most important centuries of the Greek domination) The Arab domination in Sicily 827-965 CE http://www.archeona.arti.beniculturali.it/immagini/magna3.jpg http://www.valsesiascuole.it/crosior/1medioevo/arabi.1.jpg http://www.italienisch-in-italien.de/web/italy/img/italia.jpg http://img.webring.com/r/i/italiameridional/logo South (Mezzogiorno): Molise, Campania, Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria; Sicily and Sardinia.-->However, the identification of the South in cultural, social and economic terms is elastic depending who defines it and for what purpose. Factors that make South and North different: historical, social, cultural, economic When Italy was unified in 1861, emerged the Southern Question-->The Revolution was not carried out by the masses, united by a military campaign that was carried out mostly by the North.-->The South and Magna Graecia Southern Italy was called "Magna Graecia" (Latin for "Greater Greece"). Why?--> The influence of Greek settlers on Italy-->Magna Graecia the center of two philosophical groups in the 6th century BC: Parmenides at Elea, Pythagoras at Crotone The most splendid remains of Greek temples in the Mediterranean are in southern Italy-->John Dickie Study: shines new light on the origin of the stereotypes used to illustrate the divide between the South and North A "state of siege" was declared by Garibaldi in 1862 when he landed in Calabria Prior to unification, south enjoyed a rich culture and high level of industrial production, Naples was a culture center and a capital (the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies) After unification, industrial strength shifts to north-->South becomes almost exclusively agricultural At this time, most taxation was on agriculture; south had to carry most of the burden, which leads to rebellion Because of this rebellion: banditry, brigandage-->1863 1864: government had to intervene to stop the "brigandage"-->Most of them weren't criminals; their actions represented class struggles Popular uprisings; state had to respond with army: severe repression More people died in these clashes than in the three wars of independence The government had to create the idea that south was different from the north ("otherness") to justify drastic measures of repression North - law/order, South-chaos Alfredo Niceforo explains the "Southern Question" in racial terms Initially he was influenced by the Italian criminologist, Cesare Lombroso (18351909), who had theorized the existence of a criminal type, identifiable by certain physical features Niceforo came to believe, however, that crime could be understood only through a thorough investigationbiological, psychological, and sociologicalof the normal human being Using concepts drawn from Social Darwinism , Lombroso's theory of anthropological criminology essentially stated that criminality was inherited , and that someone "born criminal" could be identified by physical defects , which confirmed a criminal as savage , or atavistic .-->These theories were applied to the "Other", Southern Italians who were represented as...
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Chapter 7 - HUI 239 CHAPTER VII: The Two Italies and The...

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