Chapter 10 - Religion

Chapter 10 - Religion - Chapter 10 RELIGION Secularization...

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Chapter 10 RELIGION: Secularization of State and Society Religion Profile Religious Demography - Italy is overwhelmingly Catholic, 87% of population - Religious Composition: o 91.1% Christian; 53,500,000 o 1.4% Muslims; 850,000 o .1% Jews; 45,000 - Both legal and illegal immigration from N. Africa, South Asia, Albania, and Middle East adds large groups of non-Christians to Italy’s population o Estimate 1 million out of 2.9 million immigrants are Muslims o Islam is Italy’s 2 nd largest religion Rome is the home of the largest Mosque in a non-Muslim country
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Legal status of Church and Religion - There is no official state religion in Italy, as there is a separation of Church and State, but there is freedom of religion - Roman Catholic Church (RCC) enjoys privileges due to its sovereign status and historical political authority as an independent state in Central Italy until 1861 o Pacts of Lateran regulates legal relations between RCC and State o 1984 Amendment to Pacts of Lateran allows Catholicism to be taught in state schools to pupils who request it
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Relations between Church and state: The “Roman question”: - Before 1861, Central Italy was part of the Papal State - Italian troops entered Rome in 1870, and Pope declared himself prisoner of the Italian state - Guaranty Law of 1871 provided Pope free exercise of his functions as leader of RCC o Pope Pius IX refused to recognize new political and territorial arrangement thus the “Roman question” emerged Monarchy was excommunicated and Catholics were forbidden from holding public office or voting in national elections Widespread alienation from the state, and isolation of faithful Catholics from forces of society
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Problematic solution of the Roman question with the Pacts of Lateran: - Roman question solved with Pacts of Lateran in 1929 - Consisted of three parts: o 1. RCC was given: Creation of independent Vatican city-state, possession of numerous churches and palaces in Rome, a papal summer residence at Castel Gandolfo, basilicas at Padua, Loreto and Assisi, custody of all catacombs in Italy, Pope and Vatican sovereign. In return, Pope recognized Italian state and renounced Vatican claims to former papal territories o 2. Catholicism was established as sole religion of Italian state 3. Financial settlement which gave RCC 750 million liras, plus 1 million liras in state bonds as compensation of territory losses - Mussolini settles the Roman question, but at the cost of separation between church and state, which was the core principle of Risorgimento - After the fall of Fascism and rise of DC, RCC became very powerful politically and established an influence over all aspects of Italian life
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Farewell to the Catholic State - 1984 Revision to the Concordat (Pacts of Lateran) signed by Vatican Secretary of State Agostino Casaroli and Italian PM Bettino Craxi o Principle of secular state reestablished, but state support for religion maintained - Three important articles: o Marriage had to conform to legal requirement of Italian law
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This note was uploaded on 02/24/2010 for the course HUI 239 taught by Professor Mariomignone during the Fall '10 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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Chapter 10 - Religion - Chapter 10 RELIGION Secularization...

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