Chapter01 Intro to Computer and Programming

Chapter01 Intro to Computer and Programming - 1 Chapter...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–9. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: 1 Chapter Introduction to Computers and Programming 1 Why Program? 1.1 2 Why Program? • Computer – programmable machine designed to follow instructions • Program – instructions in computer memory to make it do something • Programmer – person who writes instructions (programs) to make computer perform a task • SO, without programmers, no programs; without programs, a computer cannot do anything Computer Systems: Hardware and Software 1.2 3 Main Hardware Component Categories: 1. Central Processing Unit (CPU) 2. Main Memory 3. Secondary Memory / Storage 4. Input Devices 5. Output Devices Main Hardware Component Categories Figure 1-1 4 Central Processing Unit (CPU) • Comprised of: • Control Unit • Retrieves and decodes program instructions • Coordinates activities of all other parts of computer • Arithmetic & Logic Unit • Hardware optimized for high-speed numeric calculation • Hardware designed for true/false, yes/no decisions CPU Organization Figure 1-2 5 Program Execution Fetch /Decode/Execute Cycle • Fetch – Control Unit gets the next instruction from main memory • Decode – Control Unit “reads” the instruction and generates an electronic signal. • Execute – the signal is routed to the appropriate component of the computer. Main Memory • It is volatile. Main memory is erased when program terminates or computer is turned off • Also called Random Access Memory (RAM) • Organized as follows: • bit: smallest piece of memory. Has values 0 (off, false) or 1 (on, true) • byte: 8 consecutive bits. Bytes have addresses. 6 Main Memory • Addresses – Each byte in memory is identified by a unique number known as an address . Main Memory In Figure 1-3, the number 149 is stored in the byte with the address 16, and the number 72 is stored at address 23. 7 Secondary Storage • Non-volatile: data retained when program is not running or computer is turned off • Comes in a variety of media: • magnetic: floppy disk, zip disk, hard drive • optical: CD-ROM • Flash drives, connected to the USB port Input Devices • Devices that send information to the computer from outside • Many devices can provide input: • Keyboard, mouse, scanner, digital camera, microphone • Disk drives and CD-ROM 8 Output Devices • Output is information sent from a computer program to the outside world. • The output is sent to an output device • Many devices can be used for output: • Computer monitor and printer • Floppy, zip disk drives • Writable CD drives Software – Programs That Run on a Computer • Categories of software: • Operating system: programs that manage the computer hardware and the programs that run on them....
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 02/24/2010 for the course LW 454 taught by Professor Alek during the Winter '10 term at La Roche College .

Page1 / 27

Chapter01 Intro to Computer and Programming - 1 Chapter...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 9. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online