Chapter01 Intro to Computer and Programming

Chapter01 Intro to Computer and Programming - 1 Chapter...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Chapter Introduction to Computers and Programming 1 Why Program? 1.1 2 Why Program? Computer programmable machine designed to follow instructions Program instructions in computer memory to make it do something Programmer person who writes instructions (programs) to make computer perform a task SO, without programmers, no programs; without programs, a computer cannot do anything Computer Systems: Hardware and Software 1.2 3 Main Hardware Component Categories: 1. Central Processing Unit (CPU) 2. Main Memory 3. Secondary Memory / Storage 4. Input Devices 5. Output Devices Main Hardware Component Categories Figure 1-1 4 Central Processing Unit (CPU) Comprised of: Control Unit Retrieves and decodes program instructions Coordinates activities of all other parts of computer Arithmetic & Logic Unit Hardware optimized for high-speed numeric calculation Hardware designed for true/false, yes/no decisions CPU Organization Figure 1-2 5 Program Execution Fetch /Decode/Execute Cycle Fetch Control Unit gets the next instruction from main memory Decode Control Unit reads the instruction and generates an electronic signal. Execute the signal is routed to the appropriate component of the computer. Main Memory It is volatile. Main memory is erased when program terminates or computer is turned off Also called Random Access Memory (RAM) Organized as follows: bit: smallest piece of memory. Has values 0 (off, false) or 1 (on, true) byte: 8 consecutive bits. Bytes have addresses. 6 Main Memory Addresses Each byte in memory is identified by a unique number known as an address . Main Memory In Figure 1-3, the number 149 is stored in the byte with the address 16, and the number 72 is stored at address 23. 7 Secondary Storage Non-volatile: data retained when program is not running or computer is turned off Comes in a variety of media: magnetic: floppy disk, zip disk, hard drive optical: CD-ROM Flash drives, connected to the USB port Input Devices Devices that send information to the computer from outside Many devices can provide input: Keyboard, mouse, scanner, digital camera, microphone Disk drives and CD-ROM 8 Output Devices Output is information sent from a computer program to the outside world. The output is sent to an output device Many devices can be used for output: Computer monitor and printer Floppy, zip disk drives Writable CD drives Software Programs That Run on a Computer Categories of software: Operating system: programs that manage the computer hardware and the programs that run on them....
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Chapter01 Intro to Computer and Programming - 1 Chapter...

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