159_fall_07_chapter_8_supplement

159_fall_07_chapter_8_supplement - Chapter 8 Electron...

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Ch 8 1 Chapter 8 Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity
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Ch 8 2 Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity 8.1 Development of the Periodic Table 8.2 Characteristics of Many-Electron Atoms 8.3 The Quantum-Mechanical Model and the Periodic Table 8.4 Trends in Three Key Atomic Properties 8.5 Atomic Structure and Chemical Reactivity
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Ch 8 3 Analogy (Shoe in a warehouse ) In many electron atoms, an additional quantum number is needed to describe a property of the electron itself called spin, which is not a property of the orbital. Where is the electron? n = principal quantum number - floor l = angular momentum quantum number - shelf m l = magnetic quantum number - which box m s = spin quantum number - pointing up or down
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Ch 8 4 Factors Affecting Atomic Orbital Energies 1. Additional electron in the same orbital An additional electron raises the orbital energy through electron-electron repulsions. 2. Additional electrons in inner orbitals Inner electrons shield outer electrons from the nucleus more effectively than do electrons in the same sublevel. Higher nuclear charge lowers orbital energy (stabilizes the system) by increasing nucleus-electron attractions. The Effect of Nuclear Charge (Z effective ) The Effect of Electron Repulsions (Shielding)
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Ch 8 5 Categories of Electrons • Inner (core) electrons - they fill all the lower energy levels of an atom • Outer electrons - those in the highest energy level (highest n value) • Valence electrons – those involved in forming compounds -outer electrons for main gp elements - (n-1) d electrons transition elements (also counted among the valence electrons)
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Ch 8 6 Typical Quiz Question
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This note was uploaded on 04/03/2008 for the course CHEM 159-160 taught by Professor Zbaida during the Fall '07 term at Rutgers.

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159_fall_07_chapter_8_supplement - Chapter 8 Electron...

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