Chapter 30 Test Notes

Chapter 30 Test Notes - Chapter 2 Test Notes CHAPTER 30...

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Chapter 2 Test Notes C HAPTER 30 O VERVIEW OF G REEN P LANTS D EFINING P LANTS The kingdom viridiplantae includes land plants and green algae o Doesn’t include red or brown algae All green plans arose from a single species of freshwater algae Green algae split into two major clades: o Chlorophytes : never made it to land o Charophytes : land! Land plants have two major features: o Protected Embryos o Multicellular haploid (n) and diploid (2n) phases Adaptations to terrestrial life: o Protection from dessication by a waxy cuticle and stomata o Evolution of leaves which increase photosynthetic surface area o Shift to a dominant vertical diploid (2n) generation P LANT L IFE C YCLES Humans have diplontic life cycle Plants have haplodiplontic life cycle o Multicellular diploid stage = Sporophyte o Multicellular haploid stage = Gametophyte Sporophyte produces haploid spores by meiosis Spores divide mitotically producing the gametophyte Gametophyte produces gametes by mitosis Gametes fuse to form the diploid sporophyte As more complex plants evoled: o Diploid stage became dominant portion of life cycle o Gametophyte became more limited in size o Sporophyte became nutritionally independent C HLOROPHYTES Green algae have two distinct lineages: o Chlorophytes : gave rise to aquatic algae o Streptophytes : gave rise to land plants C HLAMYDOMONAS o Unicellular chlorophyte with two flagella o Have eyespots to direct swimming o Reproduce both asexually and sexually V OLVOX o Colonial chlorophyte o Hollow sphere of a single layer of 500-60,000 cells o A few cells are specialized for reproduction U LVA o Multicellular chlorophyte o Haploidiplontic life cycle s Gametophyte and sporophyte have identical appearance C HAROPHYTES Green algae related to land plants 2 Candidate Clades: C HARALES o Macroscopic o Plant-like plasmodesmata o Sister clade to land plants C HOLEOCAETALES o Microscopic o Plant-like Mitosis o Next closest plant relatives B RYOPHYTES Closest living descendants of the first land plants Called Nontraceophytes because they lack tracheids (specialized transport cells) Simple, but highly adapted to diverse terrestrial environments Non-photosynthetic sporophyte is nutritionally dependent on gametophyte L IVERWORTS (phylum Hepaticophyta ) Have flattened gametophytes with liver-like lobes Form Gametangia in umbrella-shaped structures
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Also undergo asexual reproduction H ORNWORTS (phylum Anthocerotophyta
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Chapter 30 Test Notes - Chapter 2 Test Notes CHAPTER 30...

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