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2.4.10_Lec 8 - Lecture 8 First Quarter Review 1 Lecture 8...

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1 Lecture 8 First Quarter Review 1 Lecture 8 Outline – 1st Quarter Review 1. The Scientific Method 2 Biostatistics paradigm 2. Biostatistics paradigm Variables, measurement Inter-relationships 3. Exploratory data analysis 4. Probability concepts 5. Probability distributions Binomial Poisson Normal 6. Sampling and Sampling distributions 2
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2 The Scientific Method The scientific method involves competing hypotheses about a natural phenomenon (the truth ”) Data provide evidence in support of one or more hypothesis Biostatistics uses data to draw inferences b t th t th about the truth 3 The Role of Biostatistics in Public Health 1. Generate hypotheses about the “truth” 2. Design a study; collect data 3. Descriptive statistics - Look at the data 4. Statistical inference Discover patterns amidst variability Make an inference about the unknown t th b d th b d d t truth based on the observed data 4
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3 Biostatistics Paradigm 1. Variable - a characteristic taking on different l values “Random” variable: values arise partly as a result of chance 2. Response variables vs. explanatory variables 3. Tendency for certain values of one variable to occur together with certain values of another variable variable Conditional probabilities Relative risk - “risk ratio” 5 Types of Variables 1. Quantitative : “amount” Discrete (gaps) vs. continuous 2. Qualitative : “attribute” Nominal (no “order”) vs. ordinal 6
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4 Bias and Variance 1. Variation - differences among measurements Natural” vs. “measurement” 2. Bias and Variance Bias : average measurement – truth Variance : variation about the average 7 Descriptive Statistics 1 Collecting data 1. Collecting data 2. Organizing and summarizing data 3. Analyzing data 4. Interpreting data 8
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