First Proposal Submission

First Proposal Submission - Running Head Type of Story and...

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Running Head: Type of Story and Arousal Music on Emotional Perception 1 The Effects of Type of Story and Arousal Music on the Emotional Perception of Others Jefri Vanegas University of California, Los Angeles
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Running Head: Type of Story and Arousal Music on Emotional Perception 2 Previous research has found that when people are in an aroused state of emotion, they come to ascribe certain traits to others that are for the most part inconsistent with those persons’ actual characteristics. The perceptions people have on others are highly influenced by emotional arousal. There are a number of internal and external variables that influences a persons’ ability to judge the emotional state of others, more specifically, the emotion they are perceived to be expressing. Paulhus, Martin and Murphy (1992) investigated the effects on sex stereotyping of arousal during recall of gender and trait-based inferences (p. 325). They did this to observe whether inferences tend to be gender-based when gender is the most salient cue, or if when behavioral information is the most salient cue, inferences tend to be trait-based (p. 325). In this two-way within-subjects experiment, there were two independent variables: the first independent variable was type of arousal with two levels: high and low, and the second independent variable was type of information with two levels: stereotype-neutral and stereotype-inconsistent (p. 328). The dependent variable was the stereotyping-index, with an interval scale ranging from -2 to 6 (negative values meaning gender inferences, and positive values meaning trait inferences) (p. 328). In order to accomplish this they ran 40 participants through a microcomputer-based laboratory in which they were asked to memorize behavioral descriptions of four targets (p. 326). They were then asked to make 10 trait-based attributions about the targets based on their memory of the behavioral vignettes (p. 326). They found that arousing, operationally defined as white noise (measured in a nominal scale of low to high) increases sex stereotyping when
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Running Head: Type of Story and Arousal Music on Emotional Perception 3 memories of previously stereotyped people are retrieved (p. 329). Those findings imply that when the emotional state of mind of the participant was increased from low to high, their likelihood to stereotype also increased. This relates to our study because stereotyping, like amiability, is influenced by factors such as arousal and type of information. A study conducted by Ziv and Goshen (2006) examined the effect of tone of music on children’s interpretation of the story (p. 303). They did this to see if in 5-6 year old children the tone of music affects the children’s interpretation of the story (p. 303). In this 2x1x3 between subjects experiment, there were two independent variables: the first independent variable was type of background music with three levels: neutral, major, minor, and the second independent variable was a story (p. 309). The dependent variable was participants’ rating of the characters emotion with three levels: neutral, happy, and sad (p. 309). In order to do so, sixty kindergarten
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