God_Philosophy1 - Philosophy 100B Philosophy Week 2: God...

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Unformatted text preview: Philosophy 100B Philosophy Week 2: God & Philosophy Roman intellectuals Roman after the fall preserving an ancient culture in a new Christian world with few material resources seven liberal arts seven trivium (speech) grammar, rhetoric, dialectic quadrivium (calculation) arithmetic, geometry, music, arithmetic, astronomy Boethius Boethius quadrivium logic theology Consol ati on Boethius Boethius quadrivium logic textbooks textbooks translations commentaries essays meditation poetry theology Consol ati on Boethius Boethius logic translations Aristotle’s Organon Porphyry’s I ntr oducti on Porphyry’s commentaries I ntr oducti on Categor i es On I nter pr etati on Cicero’s Topi cs Cicero’s T opi textbooks On Topi cal Di ffer ences On Categor i cal Syl l ogi sms Porphyry’s I ntr oducti on introduction to Aristotelian logic before the Categor i es Categor before five (not ten) predicables types of terms used as predicates Socrates (subject) is a man Socrates (predicate) (predicate) Socrates (subject) is white Socrates (predicate) (predicate) ‘Socrates Socrates … is a man is … is white’ • ‘man’ = ‘human’ • ‘white’ = ‘pale’ Porphyry’s I ntr oducti on introduces logic by way of the five predicables genus ‘man is an animal’ man animal species ‘Socrates is a man’ Socrates man difference ‘man is a rational animal’ man animal’ property ‘man is a risible animal’ man animal’ accident ‘Socrates is white’ Socrates white Porphyry’s (rejected) questions Porphyry’s about genera and species are they real (extramental)? if real, are they bodily or unbodily? if unbodily, apart from or in if sensibles? problem of universals problem ‘man’ a word for an item that applies to all humans is the item called ‘man’ is real? extramental? merely mental? merely verbal? realists v nominalists realists Boethius Boethius two commentaries on the two I ntr oducti on elementary explanatory paraphrase Boethius Boethius two commentaries on the two I ntr oducti on addresses Porphyry’s questions examines arguments against real examines universals universals Boethius Boethius two commentaries on the two I ntr oducti on universals either extramental or merely mental Boethius Boethius two commentaries on the two I ntr oducti on every extramental item is one in every number number but universals are said of many therefore, universals are not therefore, extramental extramental therefore, universals are merely therefore, mental mental Boethius Boethius two commentaries on the two I ntr oducti on merely mental universals represent either represent things that are either real real or represent things that are not or real real Boethius Boethius two commentaries on the two I ntr oducti on • what truly represents things that truly are real are must itself be real must • but universals, being merely mental, mental, are not real are • thus, they misrepresent real things, mis making them false and empty making Boethius Boethius two commentaries on the two I ntr oducti on but Boethius denies that what misrepresents things that misrepresents must be said falsely of those things must of Boethius Boethius two commentaries on the two I ntr oducti on points, lines and surfaces as (abstract) items of geometry do not represent real (concrete) do things things yet they are said truly of real things yet Boethius Boethius two commentaries on the two I ntr oducti on universals are mental items derived from extramental items and so are not said falsely of them anti-realism? Boethius Boethius two commentaries on the two I ntr oducti on but the mind grasps what is real better than the senses Platonism? Boethius Boethius two commentaries on the two I ntr oducti on Boethius is not clear: particular ‘likenesses’ sensed in things universal species and genera grasped by the mind are the same items are Boethius Boethius two commentaries on the two I ntr oducti on Boethius is not clear: realist abstraction genera and species are real but always attached to particulars Boethius Boethius two commentaries on the two I ntr oducti on attempts to settle Porphyry’s attempts questions questions from the I ntr oducti on from on the five predicables Boethius Boethius an orthodox Catholic executed by Theoderic, an Arian Arianism a trinitarian heresy ORTHODOXY ORTHODOXY Christ is God three persons in God Father, Son and Holy Spirit ORTHODOXY ORTHODOXY Christ is God 1 person 2 natures: divine and natures: human human ARIAN HERESY HERESY Christ is a creature not God therefore, no Trinity Boethius Boethius five theological essays defends the orthodox Trinity Aristotelian logic Neoplatonic metaphysics in these debates debates Greek: hypostasi s Greek: h ypostasi Latin: substanti a Latin: substanti a key term: ‘substance’ applied to the persons of the applied Trinity Trinity Boethius Boethius how is God a substance? how substance not in the usual Aristotelian sense a substrate for accidents Socrates (substance) is white is (accident) (accident) but as what comes before but everything everything as its origin in these debates debates more generally how can any word be said of God? how be how can any term be predicated of how predicated God? Arians Arians substance, substrate: what persists substrate: (Socrates) (Socrates) accident: what changes (white) God does not change all predications of God are substantial all substantial Boethius Boethius follows Augustine the one item, God, called the ‘Father’ and ‘Son’ and ‘Spirit,’ is a single simple substance, without parts is substance Boethius Boethius B1: hence, what is predicable substantially B1: of God of is also predicable of each of the three is persons persons called either ‘Father’ or ‘Son’ or ‘Spirit’ called Boethius Boethius if (B1), then (B2) B2: what is not predicable of each of the three B2: not persons persons is not predicable substantially of God is not of but may be predicable relatively but relatively Boethius Boethius such relative predicables include such predicables fatherhood, sonship, triunity and so on triunity: the property of being three and one Boethius Boethius but if relative predicables apply to God but predicables then, since any relation has at least two terms, then, plurality can apply (relatively) to God plurality and triunity is the type of plurality that actually and applies applies Boethius Boethius solves a puzzle: if the Father is not identical to the Son, but God is the Father, and God is the Son, how can God be one? how can God be one and three? Boethius Boethius solves a puzzle: unity applies to God substantially, unity substantially but triunity applies relatively but relatively Boethius Boethius around 526, an orthodox Catholic, executed by Theoderic, an Arian Justinian Justinian also an orthodox Catholic, and Theoderic’s enemy in 526, closed the philosophical school in Athens in 529, ending a tradition ending that started with Plato that but philosophy continued… but starting in the early 6 century starting John of Damascus, 8 century John Islam in Spain by 700 problem of succession: the problem Caliphs Caliphs parallel theological problems Muhammad, d. 632 Mu conflict in Islam conflict Kharajites Kharajites opponents of Ali, Muhammad’s cousin, cousin, Shi’at Ali, the party of Ali: Shi’ites Muslim theologians interpret the Koran and hadi th h adi exegesis develop kal am (‘discussion’) develop k al mutakal l i mun : theologians locate and resolve theological problems philosophical analysis Muslim theology Kharajite moral theology Kharajite serious sin is equivalent to unbelief Murji’ite moral theology even serious sinners are still believers Muslim theology Mu‘tazilite kal am , 8th century k al compromise on the status of sinners neither believers nor unbelievers supported by the Abbasid Caliphs Muslim theology Muslim Mu‘tazilite theology Mu‘tazilite God is one God is just God rewards good and punishes evil good is commanded, evil forbidden compromise on status of sinners Muslim theology Muslim Mu‘tazilite theology Mu‘tazilite negative theology against anthropomorphic theism the Koran is created, not eternal Muslim theology Mu‘tazilite theology Mu‘tazilite a moral order binds humans determines God’s actions toward humans humans Muslim theology Mu‘tazilite theology Mu‘tazilite influenced by Aristotle rejecting Aristotle’s notion of a substance substance as a self-standing thing with its own nature or essence Muslim theology Mu‘tazilite theology Mu‘tazilite things are unstable collections of atoms created directly by God motion and rest are the only properties of atoms Muslim theology Mu‘tazilite theology Mu‘tazilite other properties of things persist or vanish as God assembles their atoms or disassembles them Muslim theology Muslim Mu‘tazilite theology Mu‘tazilite reason argument used as tools of theology Muslim theology Muslim Mu‘tazilite theology Mu‘tazilite God’s unity and transcendence favor a negative theology God’s revelation of himself in the Koran favors an affirmative theology Muslim theology Mu‘tazilite theology Mu‘tazilite ‘God is mighty’ God is not unmighty (negatively) but God is one (affirmatively) is God the might of God? is God the wisdom of God? is God the justice of God? Muslim theology Mu‘tazilite theology Mu‘tazilite might is an act of God wisdom is an act of God justice is an act of God but God is one Muslim theology Mu‘tazilite theology Mu‘tazilite God’s human creatures observing God’s creation observing observe in it observe God’s acts of might, wisdom and justice Muslim theology Muslim theology Mu‘tazilite theology Mu‘tazilite supported by the Abassid Caliphs who also support translation of Greek books into Syriac and Arabic Muslim philosophy Muslim philosophy in the 9th century in stimulated by Muslim theology requiring translation of Aristotle and Neoplatonized Aristotelianism Muslim philosophy Muslim philosophy in the 9th century in blending Aristotle with the Neoplatonists, Plotinus and Proclus, Proclus, merging the Creator God of Islam with the Neoplatonic One, also divine but impersonal Muslim philosophy Muslim philosophy in the 9th century in Abu Yusuf Ibn Ishaq al-Kindi (801-66) Abu (801-66) uses the Neoplatonized Aristotle to solve the Mu‘tazilite problems Muslim philosophy Muslim philosophy in the 9th century in Abu Yusuf Ibn Ishaq al-Kindi (801-66) Abu (801-66) reads Aristotle in a Neoplatonist framework to accommodate Muslim doctrines like the creation of the world Western philosophy in the 9th century in much less developed facing similar theological issues Western philosophy John Scotus Eriugena John able to read Greek (very unusual) translates Dionysius the Areopagite Western philosophy John Scotus Eriugena John able to read Greek (very unusual) translates Dionysius the Areopagite knows Aristotle’s categories substance, quality, quantity… as answers to ‘what is x?’ Western philosophy John Scotus Eriugena John treats the categories Neoplatonically concludes that none apply to God not even substance/being Western philosophy John Scotus Eriugena John the universe is all that exists God does not exist God transcends substance/being/existence Western philosophy John Scotus Eriugena John God is nothing God nothing God creates from nothing (ex ni hi l o) God is that nothing from which God God creates creates negative (apophatic) theology affirmative (cataphatic) theology Western philosophy John Scotus Eriugena John ‘God is good’ does not mean does ‘God has the property of goodness’ ‘God it means ‘God causes what is good’ Western philosophy John Scotus Eriugena John affirmative theology is correct only in this causal sense otherwise the only correct theology is negative Western philosophy John Scotus Eriugena John correct: God is not not-good incorrect: God is good correct: God causes what is good Western philosophy John Scotus Eriugena John from the good effects of an unknowable cause we infer a property of goodness applied metaphorically to God as that cause ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/24/2010 for the course PHILOSOPHY 100B taught by Professor Copenhaver during the Spring '10 term at UCLA.

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