God_Philosophy2 - Philosophy 100B Philosophy Week 2: God...

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Unformatted text preview: Philosophy 100B Philosophy Week 2: God & Philosophy Muslim philosophy Muslim until the middle of the 9th century the Caliphs supported Mu‘tazilite kalam the kalam then turned against philosophical then theology Muslim philosophy Muslim kalam continued away from the court leading to some very unorthodox leading thinking thinking usually marginal usually Muslim philosophy Muslim Abu Nasr al-Farabi (870-950) in Baghdad Abu (870-950) a more central and influential figure remarkably independent of tradition Muslim philosophy Muslim Abu Nasr al-Farabi Abu al-Farabi in the style of the Neoplatonizing in Aristotelians Aristotelians he wrote about logic also general philosophical and political also issues issues Muslim philosophy Muslim Abu Nasr al-Farabi Abu al-Farabi the first great logician to write in Arabic distinguishing the grammatical study of distinguishing words words belonging to particular human languages from the logical study of meanings of from words words meanings understood by all humans Muslim philosophy Muslim Abu Nasr al-Farabi Abu al-Farabi to express his new logic he invented a technical vocabulary in he Arabic, Arabic, but in ordinary language, not a formal notation Muslim philosophy Muslim Abu Nasr al-Farabi Abu al-Farabi his boldest view: the true way to happiness is through philosophy Muslim philosophy Muslim Abu Nasr al-Farabi Abu al-Farabi rigorous reasoning is self-divinization logic reconciles philosophy with religion, but by subordinating religion all of this in an explicit political all framework Muslim philosophy Muslim Abu Nasr al-Farabi Abu al-Farabi his cosmology Aristotelian, Ptolemaic and Neoplatonic, the traditional system of concentric the spheres, spheres, each animated by an Intelligence, and emanated from a First Intelligence, emanated originally from the First Cause Muslim philosophy Muslim Abu Nasr al-Farabi Abu al-Farabi each of nine Intelligences emanates the next Intelligence and its emanates sphere, sphere, but the tenth, called the Active Intellect, does not emanate another sphere or Intelligence Muslim philosophy Muslim Abu Nasr al-Farabi Abu al-Farabi instead, the tenth Intelligence, the Active Intellect, produces the earthly human world below the moon (sublunar) at the center and bottom of the universe Muslim philosophy Muslim Abu Nasr al-Farabi Abu al-Farabi this Active Intellect, not the individual human mind or soul, enables human beings to think and thereby reach their goal, salvation by way of philosophy Muslim philosophy Muslim Abu Nasr al-Farabi Abu al-Farabi until it is illuminated by the Active until Intellect, Intellect, the human intellect is merely material or potential, not actually and actively an intellect at not all all Muslim philosophy Muslim Abu Nasr al-Farabi Abu al-Farabi the intricate four-stage process of the illumination illumination or conjunction with the Active Intellect is based on Aristotle’s theories of cognition and of matter and form but also adaptable to religious but conceptions conceptions like prophecy and mysticism Muslim philosophy Muslim Abu Nasr al-Farabi Abu al-Farabi prophecy, for example, can be explained as the prophet’s becoming the Active as becoming Intellect: Intellect: religion and philosophy are partners, but religion is the junior partner Muslim philosophy Muslim Abu Nasr al-Farabi Abu al-Farabi philosophy grasps essences by philosophy demonstration demonstration and assents to them in reasoned argument; religion imagines likenesses by religion imagination, imagination, acquiring conviction of them by persuasion Muslim philosophy Muslim Abu Nasr al-Farabi Abu al-Farabi religion may possess the truth, but only philosophy knows it directly; in effect, true religion is popularized in philosophy philosophy Muslim philosophy Muslim Abu Nasr al-Farabi Abu al-Farabi the test of a religious claim is whether it accords with philosophical is truth, truth, and such accord may occur in any number of religions Muslim philosophy Muslim Abu Nasr al-Farabi Abu al-Farabi called on Plato’s political philosophy from the Republic and the Laws from Republic and Laws to frame his ideas about religion Muslim philosophy Muslim Abu Nasr al-Farabi Abu al-Farabi Plato’s Philosopher-King and the Imam of Muslim religion are both qualified to govern because they have risen higher on the path to the Active Intellect Muslim philosophy Muslim Abu Nasr al-Farabi Abu al-Farabi had great influence in Islam, but none of his followers, not even Avicenna, was capable of his detachment Muslim philosophy Muslim Abu Nasr al-Farabi Abu al-Farabi the figure who most resembles him was the greatest Aristotelian thinker in the Jewish tradition, Moses in Maimonides Maimonides Jewish philosophy Jewish in its medieval version had begun in the 9 and 10 centuries Jewish philosophy Jewish both Isaac and Saadia wrote in Arabic and in a cultural world dominated by Islam Muslim philosophy Muslim the most important philosopher In the Muslim tradition was Avicenna (980-1037) was Avicenna Abu Ali al-Husayn Ibn Sina Abu Muslim philosophy Muslim Avicenna Avicenna worked mainly in the 11 century worked Muslim philosophy Muslim Avicenna Avicenna much of his abundant writing, much including a commentary on all of including Aristotle, Aristotle, has been lost Muslim philosophy Muslim Avicenna Avicenna from another important project, from a series of comprehensive treatments of the Aristotelian curriculum, a major product has survived major Muslim philosophy Muslim Avicenna Avicenna al­Shifa, The Healing, al­Shifa The Healing logic, physics, mathematics and logic, metaphysics metaphysics hugely influential in the West in Latin translation Muslim philosophy Muslim Avicenna Avicenna took the Arabic logic took invented by Farabi and made it much more refined Muslim philosophy Muslim Avicenna Avicenna went beyond Farabi’s distinction went between the grammar of words and the logic of meanings Muslim philosophy Muslim Avicenna Avicenna logic is about logic (the logical) meanings of meanings, in the Latin terminology: ‘second intentions’ Muslim philosophy Muslim Avicenna Avicenna ‘Socrates is a man’ and ‘Socrates is white’ sentences standing for propositions whose logical form is ‘X is Y’ Muslim philosophy Muslim Avicenna Avicenna the logician has no interest the in the meanings of ‘man’ and ‘white,’ only in their logical roles as predicates in those propositions Muslim philosophy Muslim Avicenna Avicenna a book by Farabi book finally showed him the purpose of metaphysics after he had read Aristotle’s Metaphysics after Metaphysics forty times Muslim philosophy Muslim Avicenna Avicenna a key conclusion was that metaphysics, key as the universal science, must include theology as one of its parts; hence, God cannot be its subject hence, Muslim philosophy Muslim Avicenna Avicenna although this view of metaphysics although would seem to lead in the direction of Farabi’s detachment from religion, Avicenna in practice was more tied to Avicenna tradition Muslim philosophy Muslim Avicenna Avicenna his ideas about his the soul, prophecy and the intellect were firmly grounded in Aristotelian were philosophy, philosophy, but more committed to religious dogma than Farabi’s ideas Muslim philosophy Muslim Avicenna Avicenna in metaphysics, three great achievements: achievements: a response to the problem of universals; a distinction between essence and distinction existence; existence; arguing that the only being necessary in arguing itself itself is God is Muslim philosophy Muslim Avicenna Avicenna to deal with universals, to he developed the notion of mahiyyat he mahiyyat or common natures, literally ‘what-nesses’ or ‘thing-nesses’: ‘quiddities’ or ‘essences’ in Latin Muslim philosophy Muslim Avicenna Avicenna such a whatness would be such the cowness common to all cows, which he treated which as neither universal nor particular as Muslim philosophy Muslim Avicenna Avicenna used other subtle distinctions used about the notion of existence about Muslim philosophy Muslim Avicenna Avicenna ‘thing’ and ‘existent’ are coextensive extension of ‘red’: all the red items intension of ‘red’: the concept that picks out red items all the items that are things are also existent Muslim philosophy Muslim Avicenna Avicenna moreover, not just particular objects moreover, are things and existent, but also universal concepts like MAN and even imaginary concepts like and UNICORN Muslim philosophy Muslim Avicenna Avicenna only what is impossible only is neither a thing nor existent: given co-extensionality, since the impossible cannot exist, it also cannot be a thing it Muslim philosophy Muslim Avicenna Avicenna but ‘thing’ and ‘existent’ but do not have the same intension since their concepts are different: hence, the mahiyya or whatness (essence) hence, mahiyya of X of differs from the existence (wujud) of X Muslim philosophy Muslim Avicenna Avicenna this thingness or whatness or essence of X makes it one sort of thing rather than another: what it is which is not the job done by X’s which existence: existence: that it is Muslim philosophy Muslim Avicenna Avicenna some possible things become real some and really exist: consider the platypus consider Muslim philosophy Muslim Avicenna Avicenna other things are possible other yet do not exist: consider the dodo Muslim philosophy Muslim Avicenna Avicenna other things are possible other yet do not exist: consider the dodo or perhaps the unicorn Muslim philosophy Muslim Avicenna Avicenna in addition to such possible existents in are there also necessary existents? Muslim philosophy Muslim Avicenna Avicenna in addition to such possible existents in are there also necessary existents? what about God? Muslim philosophy Muslim Avicenna Avicenna makes a distinction: makes a merely possible existent has a cause; an existent necessary in itself has no cause Muslim philosophy Muslim Avicenna Avicenna once the possible has been caused, once the possible is necessary, not in itself but from another the sense in which a real existent platypus is necessary real Muslim philosophy Muslim Avicenna Avicenna but the existence of a platypus, but that it is is not the same as its essence, what it is according to Avicenna’s distinction Muslim philosophy Muslim Avicenna Avicenna what about God? what God has no cause therefore, God is an existent necessary in therefore, itself itself but only God has no cause but only therefore, God is the only existent therefore, only necessary in itself Muslim philosophy Muslim Avicenna Avicenna moreover, God is the only item moreover, whose essence is existence, where the essence/existence distinction does not operate, thus distinguishing the Creator from the thus creation Muslim philosophy Muslim Avicenna Avicenna most earlier thinkers most used negative theologies to distinguish a transcendent God from the universe but Avicenna’s philosophical claims are positive positive ...
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