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God_Philosophy3 - Avicenna Avicenna 980-1037 Anselm of...

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Unformatted text preview: Avicenna Avicenna 980-1037 Anselm of Canterbury 1033-1109 Anselm of Canterbury Anselm 1033 born in Aosta, southern Alps 1047 wants to become a monk 1047 1050-56 mother dies, quarrels with father, leaves home mother 1056-59 goes to Bec, northern France, with Lanfranc 1056-59 goes 1063 prior of Bec 1063 prior 1070 Lanfranc becomes Archbishop of Canterbury 1070 Lanfranc 1070-75 Prayers and Meditations 1070-75 Prayers Meditations 1075-6 Monologion 1077-8 Proslogion 1077-8 Proslogion 1089 dispute with Roscelin: logic and the Trinity 1093 Archbishop of Canterbury 1093 Archbishop 1093-1109 international politics: kings v popes 1109 dies 1109 dies Anselm of Canterbury Anselm Monologion, an internal monologue • a meditation on the rational basis of faith meditation • a long chain of many arguments Proslogion, Proslogion an external discourse • a single argument for God’s existence single • with insights about God’s attributes with Anselm of Canterbury Anselm Faith Seeking Understanding: “trying to raise his mind to the contemplation trying of God and seeking to understand what he understand believes” believes Anselm of Canterbury Anselm to use including all his powers, God-given, reason, reason to understand God as fully as possible fully not just to acquire information but to gain deeper knowledge of a person but person of God, the divine Truth, a friend Anselm of Canterbury Anselm “to understand your truth in some way, your to truth which my heart believes and loves. For I do not seek to understand in order to believe; understand I believe in order to understand” believe Anselm of Canterbury Anselm “Lord, you who grant understanding in faith, Lord, grant that … I may understand that you exist as we believe you exist, and that you are what we believe you to be … something than which nothing greater can be thought.” which something than which nothing greater can be thought thought Anselm of Canterbury Anselm if there is some X than which nothing greater can be thought and not not but but if just also that in in X the exists mind, mind, reality, reality then God really exists Anselm of Canterbury Anselm the key phrase defines what God is; the God the phrase is a definition of God or of God’s essence: something than which nothing greater can something be be thought Anselm of Canterbury Anselm the referent of this definition the referent iis s God d or a God’s essence. essence call the referent R , for call ‘the referent (R) of the definition (d) of proposed by Anselm (a).’ d a R Anselm of Canterbury Anselm the referent of this definition the d a R Anselm of Canterbury Anselm the referent of this definition the d a R might exist in the mind might as something mental mental Anselm of Canterbury Anselm the referent of this definition the d a R might exist in the mind might as something mental mental or in reality as something real real Anselm of Canterbury Anselm the referent of this definition the d a R might exist in the mind might as something mental mental or in reality as something real real Anselm of Canterbury Anselm some people may object to any definition of a some real God God iin Anselm’s opinion such people are foolish n atheists: atheists: ‘‘The fool has said in his heart, “There is no The God.”’ (Psalms 14:1, 53:1) God.”’ Anselm of Canterbury Anselm suppose that a fool denies that Anselm’s definition refers to anything real that real the fool can still understand the understand the definition and its referent d a Anselm of Canterbury Anselm suppose that a fool denies that Anselm’s definition refers to anything real that real iif the fool understands the definition, f d a R will exist as a mental item exist item iin his understanding, his mind n understanding Anselm of Canterbury Anselm emphasizes a distinction mere mental existence mere existence in the understanding genuine existence iin reality n Anselm of Canterbury Anselm d a since the fool understands R since the fool will admit the d a that a R of one type Anselm of Canterbury Anselm d a but since the R in the fool’s understanding is but something than which nothing greater can be nothing greater thought thought d a Anselm of Canterbury Anselm d a the fool insists that R exists the only in his mind only mind d a even so, R can surely be thought to exist even thought Anselm of Canterbury Anselm d a R can be thought to exist thought either only in the mind either mind d a R with property m or in reality as well or as Anselm of Canterbury Anselm d a d a because R with m < R with m + r d a d a R with m cannot be R Anselm of Canterbury Anselm something than which nothing greater can be thought cannot be thought to be less than something than which nothing greater can be thought which would be so d a iif R were merely mental and not real f real Anselm of Canterbury Anselm the first version of the ontological proof: the called ‘ontological’ because it claims to show that God is (or exists) that from what God is, from what from God’s ontology or essence Anselm of Canterbury Anselm 1033-1109 Peter Abelard 1079-1142 Peter Abelard Peter • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1079 1079 1100 1100 1102 1108 1113 1114 1115 1117 1121 1125 1132 1132 1140 1142 born in Brittany, studies logic with Roscelin born Paris, studies logic, William of Champeaux teaches in his own school, Melun Paris, teaches with William, wins debate on universals studies theology at Laon: glosses teaches at Notre Dame, cultivates William’s enemies Heloise (16) Fulbert castrates Abelard condemned by the Council of Soissons Yes and No Yes History of My Troubles History condemned by Pope Innocent II dies at Cluny is philosophy important for Christians? the authorities disagreed the the Church Fathers the the Church Fathers the Augustine Gregory Hilary Jerome many others Gregory Gregory “faith based on evidence provided by faith human reason is worthless” human Augustine Augustine “not believing in Christ without … not argument … [is] an enfeebled faith. … [But] Christian credulity is simple and absolute…. You demolish the simplicity of faith … by propping it up with judgments.” Augustine Augustine “The prophet [Isaiah] says, ‘unless you The believe, you do not understand.’” believe, Augustine Augustine do not “discuss … this profound do mystery. Too stubborn a search … may lose you the brief view of it granted to mortals as a gift from God.” granted Gregory Gregory “on all issues … dealing with God, I am on anxious to bind people more by reason then by authority.” Hilary Hilary God “did not leave faith naked … and God incapable of reason…. Unless faith is equipped with learning, when faced with the enemy it … will not … have a sure and steady way to push back.” sure Augustine Augustine “Although … your faith was very Although strong, it is still a good thing that you also knew how to reinforce what we believe by defending it.” believe Augustine Augustine “Search for it in prayer, ask for it in argument, hammer at it in questioning.” Augustine Augustine “Argument has the power to go very Argument deeply into all types of questions occurring in sacred scripture.” occurring CAN REASON CAN SUPPORT FAITH? SUPPORT YES YES NO Yes and No Yes Sic et non Peter Abelard, c. 1125 Peter Abelard, Sic et non Sic et non simple form 158 chapters each chapter a series of statements by each • Augustine, • Jerome, • Hilary, • Gregory and others on a variety of theological issues on Peter Abelard, Sic et non Sic et non each issue summarized by a proposition pro each pro and con: con 158 That the punishment of unbaptized infants is very mild compared to the punishment of the other damned, and the contrary the Peter Abelard, Sic et non Sic et non each issue summarized by a proposition pro each proposition pro and con: con 126 That when a man has put away an adulterous wife he may take another, and the contrary contrary Peter Abelard, Sic et non Sic et non each issue summarized by a proposition pro each proposition pro and con: con 80 That Christ did not experience suffering or fear as a human, and the contrary fear Peter Abelard, Sic et non Sic et non following each proposition statements by famous authorities beginning with some that support the proposition some ending with others that deny it iincluding some fundamental issues ncluding Peter Abelard, Sic et non Sic et non 1 That faith is not to be based on human reasons, and the contrary reasons, 2 That faith applies only to what is not visible, and the contrary and Peter Abelard, Sic et non Sic et non 3 That only God is to be believed in, and the contrary contrary 4 That there is no knowledge of the invisible, only faith, and the contrary only Peter Abelard, Sic et non Sic et non even on such basic issues, even the most revered authorities disagree and even contradict one another and themselves: one how does Abelard explain this? how the principle of charity charity Peter Abelard, Sic et non Sic et non the Fathers are not liars or fools; the they are not dishonest or ignorant; the problem is ours, not theirs: our failure as readers to grasp what they wrote, is not their failure as authors failure Peter Abelard, Sic et non Sic et non communication should be a writer’s main goal elegant style and correct grammar are secondary elegant to explain issues of faith, use the common speech of uneducated people use in order to avoid obscurity and achieve understanding Peter Abelard, Sic et non Sic et non provides guidelines: clear writing, critical reading, ways to question the text: a text corrupted in copying? a badly translated text? badly a text corrected by the author? a text retracted by the author? the text that the author intended? the Peter Abelard, Sic et non Sic et non when we find contradictions in a text, our task is to examine when both the content and the context. content context to understand the content, begin with the fact that words are content begin used variably, in changing relations to the things that they represent to understand the context, attend to various context issues of textual reliability and authorial intention Peter Abelard, Sic et non Sic et non critical questions about words texts iintentions ntentions contents contexts contexts help us find methods for interpreting contradictions among authorities contradictions Peter Abelard, Sic et non Sic et non iif problems persist after such methods have been f applied, applied, • compare the authorities and compare • choose the best of them choose • on two criteria: on • greater age and • greater authority greater Peter Abelard, Sic et non Sic et non for example, all other things being equal: for Augustine will be preferred to Gregory, because he is older but Paul will be preferred to Augustine because he is both older because and an Apostle Peter Abelard, Sic et non Sic et non even the best authorities make false statements, even even the Apostles and the Prophets. they were inspired by the Holy Spirit, but they were not always inspired or equally inspired. always equally the Spirit who revealed some things revealed to them also concealed other things concealed Peter Abelard, Sic et non Sic et non the Fathers knew that they made mistakes, which the they told their followers to correct. they iif some statements could not be corrected, they told f their followers not to follow them. the Fathers also distinguished the their own writings from canonical scripture Peter Abelard, Sic et non Sic et non iin this framework, they gave their followers the n freedom to judge doubtful cases, a freedom limited in two ways: in iit is heretical to claim that a statement of canonical t scripture is false scripture some statements can be proved certain some proved by reason by reason Peter Abelard, Sic et non Sic et non within these constraints, and guided by his method, within the aim of Sic et non is is to collect the sayings of the Fathers to focus on disagreements among them to conflicts among the authorities will stimulate questioning, which is a good thing which Peter Abelard, Sic et non Sic et non a strong instinct for questioning enormous respect for authority a very strong principle of charity, giving the authorities every benefit of every doubt of but finally, but a role for reason and philosophy role “It seems right that we set out to collect the It various sayings of the holy Fathers that stick in our memory because they seem to disagree as they converge on any question – sayings that may stimulate new readers to … seek the truth and may make them sharper at questioning. In fact, the … first key to wisdom is constant or frequent questioning…. By doubting … we come to inquiring, and by inquiring we perceive the truth.” truth.” “The Truth himself also says ‘Seek and you shall The find, knock and it will be opened to you.’ … The Truth chose to be discovered when he was about twelve years of age, sitting among the teachers and questioning, … a student with questions rather than … a teacher with a lesson.” rather Peter Abelard Peter 1079-1142 Peter Lombard 1095-1160 Peter Lombard Peter 1095 born in northern Italy 1136 Rheims, Bible study, glosses; Rheims, Paris, schools, Abelard Abelard 1144 teaches theology, Notre Dame 1144 theology, 1148 writes Gloss on Epistles 1148 Gloss 1150 Rome, reads John of Damascus 1154 writes Book of Sentences 1154 Book 1158 Book of Sentences, new version 1158 Book 1159 becomes Bishop of Paris 1159 becomes 1160 dies theological dispute theological a constant in Judaism, Christianity and Islam the most influential Greek summary of theology, The Source of Knowledge, written in The written • Aristotelian terminology Aristotelian • iin the eighth century by n • by John of Damascus. by its three parts deal with its • llogic, ogic, • heresies, and • a compilation of theological teachings Peter Lombard Peter the third part of John’s work, the On the Orthodox Faith, On iis like the collections of s opinions or ‘sentences’ that Peter wrote that Peter knew Peter a Latin translation of John’s work Latin Peter Lombard Peter many generations of Bible readers succeeded one another younger students consulted older experts experts the numbers of experts multiplied, the their opinions accumulated Peter Lombard Peter with so many opinions, it was useful to with make selections and collect them in various categories: creation sin redemption redemption these eventually became standard topics of theology the systematic study of God and the God’s relation to the universe God’s and humans Peter Lombard Peter collections of conflicting opinions were collections made in the West by the fifth century made but the first big breakthrough came but from lawyers in the eleventh century: lawyers experts on Church law: ‘canon law’ experts legal conflicts arose because laws had been proclaimed by many different authorities: proclaimed • • • • the Bible the popes, popes, church councils, church councils. local general general in the eleventh century, Ivo of Chartres compiled collections of conflicting laws Peter Abelard learned from the canon lawyers Peter from Abelard the method passed to Peter Lombard the Peter Lombard Peter Peter’s first work was glossing the Bible: commenting word by word, sentence by commenting sentence sentence first, between the lines or in the margins, first, later writing passages longer than the original text glosses were made by around 800 but they were made systematically but only in Peter’s time only Peter Lombard, Sentences Sentences glosses were tools for interpreting the Bible Peter brought this device to its peak with his Great Peter Gloss on the Psalms and the Epistles Gloss Peter also wrote one of the first great textbooks: the Sentences, the Sentences, the main textbook of theology the for centuries for Peter’s Peter’s summary : “The order of reason demands that we who, in the first book, have said something about the first inexplicable mystery of the most high Trinity, Trinity through the irrefragable witness of the Saints, and then, in the second book, have thoroughly second penetrated into the order of the creation of things creation and the fall of man, following the model of fall certain authorities, certain Peter’s Peter’s summary : consequently in the third and fourth books third fourth examine man’s redemption, accomplished redemption accomplished through the grace of the Mediator of God and grace men, as well as the sacraments of human sacraments redemption by which the bruises of man are bound up and the wounds of sinners are healed.” bound Peter Lombard, Sentences Sentences 933 chapters in four books clear layout and structure table of contents chapter headings Peter Lombard, Sentences Sentences neither anti-philosophical nor philosophically acute or critical content, not language, the primary object of interpretation sources identified, except contemporaries except conscious of conflicts, tries to reconcile them tries Peter Lombard, Sentences Sentences Book I, the Trinity three persons in one God, especially the Holy Spirit properties of God properties of each of the persons names of God relations of God to humans through God’s knowledge relations and will and foreknowledge providence predestination immanence and transcendence evil Peter Lombard, Sentences Sentences facing the divine mysteries, the human mind is weak but God reveals himself in the Bible, confirming divine unity and the Trinity Peter Lombard, Sentences Sentences most of the evidence comes from the Old Testament revealed knowledge comes first, revealed then reason and observation Peter finds support for such knowledge Peter iin the Bible: n God’s “invisible nature understood God’s through the things which are made” through Peter mentions four ways of knowing the Creator of from created beings 1 Since some parts of creation – heaven and earth – cannot have been made by any creature, a creator must have made them. creature, 2 Created things change, but changeable things come to be only from what exists without changing, which is God. without 3 All substances are either bodies or spirits, and spirit is better than body, but better than both is what creates both spirit and body. both 4 All forms of things are either sensible or intelligible, and spirit is more like form than body is like form, but all things get their form from a first and unchangeable form. from Peter’s Sentences were well known to were Thomas Aquinas, and they foreshadow Thomas’s five ways ...
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