PofS1 - Peter of Spain Summaries of Logic Chapter 1 On...

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Peter of Spain Summaries of Logic Chapter 1 On Introductions
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1. Dialectic is the art that has a path to the principles of all methods . And therefore, in the acquisition of the sciences, dialectic must come first . But it is called ‘dialectic’ from dia , which is ‘two,’ and logos , which is ‘talking,’ or lexis , which is ‘reasoning,’ as if it were the talking or reasoning of two people – namely, the opponent and respondent in a disputation . But because a disputation cannot take place except by means of talking , and because there is no talking except by means of vocalization , and since every vocalization is a sound , therefore, sound must be the place to start, as from what is prior.
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2. Sound , then, is whatever is properly perceived by hearing : I say ‘properly’ because, whether it is a man or a bell that is heard, it happens only through sound. Of sounds, one is vocalization, another is not vocalization. A vocalization is a sound that has come from the mouth of an animal , formed by natural organs. The natural organs by which a vocalization is formed are said to be these: lips, teeth, tongue, palate, throat and lungs. A sound that is not a vocalization is one produced by a collision of inanimate bodies, like the crashing of trees or the stomping of feet.
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3. Of vocalizations, one is sign-making, another is not sign-making. A sign-making vocalization is one that represents something to the hearing, like ‘man’ or the moaning of sick people. A non-sign-making vocalization is one that represents nothing to the hearing, like ‘buba.’ Of sign-making vocalizations, one is sign-making by convention, another naturally. A naturally sign-making vocalization is one that represents the same thing to everyone , like the moaning of sick people or the barking of dogs. A vocalization that is sign-making by convention is one like ‘man’ that represents something as decided by the one who establishes the convention. Of vocalizations that are sign-making by convention, one is simple or uncombined , like a name and a verb , another is combined or complex , like a phrase .
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‘sign-making’ is just one word in Latin, significativus ; in this case, the sign made by some vocalizations is the kind of sign expressed by many words of natural languages, as when Latin rana and English ‘frog’ are both signs for a type of amphibian; but Peter almost always uses ‘sign’ in a narrower technical sense explained below
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4. A name is a vocalization that is sign-making by convention , without tense ; no part of it signifies when separated ; and it is definite and direct . In the definition of name, ‘vocalization’ is put in the place of the genus ; ‘sign- making’ is put in for a difference : from a non-sign-making vocalization; ‘by convention’ is put in for a difference: from a naturally sign-making vocalization; ‘without tense’ is put in for a difference: from a verb, which signifies with tense; ‘no part of it …’ is put in for a difference: from a phrase, whose
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PofS1 - Peter of Spain Summaries of Logic Chapter 1 On...

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