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# PofS2 - Peter of Spain Summaries of Logic Chapter 2 On...

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Peter of Spain Summaries of Logic Chapter 2 On Predicables

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1. ‘ Predicable ’ is sometimes used in the proper sense, and in this way only what is predicated of many is said to be ‘predicable.’ Sometimes it is used in the general sense, and in that way what is predicated of many or of one is said to be ‘predicable.’ Hence, ‘predicable’ used in the proper sense and ‘universal’ are the same, but they differ in this, that the predicable is defined through being said , but the universal is defined through existing . For the predicable is what is naturally suited to be said of many , while what is naturally suited to exist in many is called ‘universal.’ Whether universal or predicable, however, it is divided by genus, difference, species, property and accident . And here our topic is these five only.
naturally predicated of many : 1 ‘human’ in ‘Sortes is human’; naturally predicated of one or of many : 2 ‘Plato’s teacher’ in ‘Sortes is Plato’s teacher’; Sortes: individual human: species the universal called ‘human’ is in Sortes in the sense that humanity belongs to Socrates; the predicable called ‘human’ is said of Sortes; the predicable, perhaps a part of mental language, corresponds to a universal, a part of extramental reality

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2. ‘Genus’ is said in three ways. In the first way, it is a collection of many things somehow related to one another and to a single origin, like a collection of those things that are of the same parentage , descending from a single ancestor. In the second way, what is called ‘genus’ is the beginning of any particular line of descent , like a father or a fatherland. In the third way, that is called ‘genus’ under which one puts a species . And this last is the way that ‘genus’ is used here . And it is defined as follows: a genus is what is predicated of many that differ by species as to what , as animal is predicated of the horse, man and lion that differ by species.
the first predicable, genus, is what is predicated of many species or other genera, like ‘animal’ in ‘rational animal’ and ‘non-rational animal’; species (and genera) ‘differ as to what ’; the answer to ‘what is x ?’ is a species (or genus); ‘what is Sortes?’ ‘Sortes is a rational animal’ ‘Sortes is a-man’ ‘what is Rosalie ?’ Rosalie is a non-rational animal’ Rosalie is a- frog .’

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3a. But in order to understand the ‘differ by species’ part, it is necessary to know that something is said to be ‘ different in as many ways as it is said to be ‘the same.’ Same ’ is said in three ways , however: same in species, same in genus and same in number. Same in genus are any items included under the same genus , like man and donkey under animal. Same in species are any included under the same species , like Sortes and Plato under man.
3b. But ‘ same in number ’ is said in three ways : in one way, same by name or definition; in a second way, same by property; in a third way, same by accident. They are called same by name

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