# PofS3 - Peter of Spain Summaries of Logic Chapter 3 On...

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Unformatted text preview: Peter of Spain Summaries of Logic Chapter 3 On Predicaments 1a. While stating certain preliminaries as necessary for knowledge of predicaments, we first distinguish three ways of predicating , along with Aristotle: of items that are said, then, some are equivocal, while others are univocal but others are denominative. Those are equivocal that have a common name and, in regard to that name, the account of the substance is different: for example, when ‘ animal ’ signifies a real animal and a painted animal, the name is common to them but, in regard to that name, the account of each substance is different. Those are called univocal of which there is a common name and, in regard to that name, the account of the substance is the same: for example, the name ‘ animal ’ is common to man and ox, and likewise, in regard to that name, its account is the same. 1b. Denominatives are said to be any that get their designation from something else, differing only by termination in regard to that name, as when ‘ grammatical ’ comes from ‘ grammar .’ They differ only by a termination – in other words, only by an ending apart from the thing – and they get their designation in regard to that name. In its beginning, then, a denominative name must coincide with a univocal name, like ‘grammar’ and ‘grammatical,’ ‘white’ and ‘whiteness.’ ‘Sortes is white’: ‘white’ is the name of a color-quality, but Sortes is a man, not a color; Sortes is called ‘white’ denominatively, by a name ‘white,’ but not by its account; he is not called ‘white’ by the account of whiteness, as he would be called ‘man’ by the account of humanity; the word ‘white’ is denominative from the word ‘whiteness’; the two words differ only by a termination, -ness Sortes is called ‘white’ because he has whiteness in him, in the way that a separable accident is in a substance; whiteness is in the category of quality; I cannot say ‘Sortes is whiteness’ but I can say, denominatively, ‘Sortes is white’; most predications of quality are denominative 2a. Of things that are said , some are said without combining , like ‘man’ or ‘runs,’ and others are said by combining , like ‘a man runs.’ But before subdividing the second part of this division, we must distinguish the ways of being-in , which are necessary for understanding the division that follows and for certain statements that will be made later THE TEN CATEGORIES are categories of things said without combining; to understand them, first distinguish ways of being-in ; ‘white’ is said without combining; ‘Sortes is white’ is said by combining: ‘white’ is said of Socrates; how is white in Sortes?...
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PofS3 - Peter of Spain Summaries of Logic Chapter 3 On...

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