PofSEngNN - PETER OF SPAIN SUMMARIES OF LOGIC CHAPTER 1 ON...

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of 1; 9:59 AM; 2/8/10 1 P ETER OF S PAIN S UMMARIES OF L OGIC C HAPTER 1 O N I NTRODUCTIONS 1. Dialectic is the art that has a path to the principles of all methods. And therefore, in the acquisition of the sciences, dialectic must come first. But it is called ‘dialectic’ from dia , which is ‘two,’ and logos , which is ‘talking,’ or lexis , which is ‘reasoning,’ as if it were the talking or reasoning of two people – namely, the opponent and respondent in a disputation. But because a disputation cannot take place except by means of talking, and because there is no talking except by means of vocalization, and since every vocalization is a sound, therefore, sound must be the place to start, as from what is prior. 2. Sound, then, is whatever is properly perceived by hearing: I say ‘properly’ because, whether it is a man or a bell that is heard, it happens only through sound. Of sounds, one is vocalization, another is not vocalization. A vocalization is a sound that has come from the mouth of an animal, formed by natural organs. The natural organs by which a vocalization is formed are said to be these: lips, teeth, tongue, palate, throat and lungs. A sound that is not a vocalization is one produced by a collision of inanimate bodies, like the crashing of trees or the stomping of feet. 3. Of vocalizations, one is sign-making, another is not sign-making. A sign-making vocalization is one that represents something to the hearing, like ‘man’ or the moaning of sick people. A non-sign-making vocalization is one that represents nothing to the hearing, like ‘buba.’ Of sign-making vocalizations, one is sign-making by convention, another naturally. A naturally sign-making vocalization is one that represents the same thing to everyone, like the moaning of sick people or the barking of dogs. A vocalization that is sign-making by convention is one like ‘man’ that represents something as decided by the one who establishes the convention. Of vocalizations that are sign-making by convention, one is simple or uncombined, like a name and a verb, another is combined or complex, like a phrase. 4. A name is a vocalization that is sign-making by convention, without tense; no part of it signifies when separated; and it is definite and direct. In the definition of name, ‘vocalization’ is put in the place of the genus; ‘sign-making’ is put in for a difference: from a non-sign-making vocalization; ‘by convention’ is put in for a difference: from a naturally sign-making vocalization; ‘without tense’ is put in for a difference: from a verb, which signifies with tense; ‘no part of it …’ is put in for a difference: from a phrase, whose parts signify when separated; ‘definite’ is put in for a difference: from an indefinite name, like ‘not-man,’ which according to dialecticians is not a name but an indefinite name; and ‘direct’ is put in for a difference: from an inflected name, like ‘of- Cato,’ ‘to-Cato’ and so on, which according to dialecticians are not names but inflections
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This note was uploaded on 02/24/2010 for the course PHILOSOPHY 100B taught by Professor Copenhaver during the Spring '10 term at UCLA.

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PofSEngNN - PETER OF SPAIN SUMMARIES OF LOGIC CHAPTER 1 ON...

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