Chapter 9

Chapter 9 - Chapter 9 The Nativist Perspective- Noam...

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Chapter 9 The Nativist Perspective- Noam Chomsky Language Acquisition Device (LAD)- in Chomsky’s theory, an innate system containing a universal grammar, or set of rules common to all languages, that permits children, once they have acquired sufficient vocabulary, to understand and speak in a rule- oriented fashion o Universal Grammar- in Chomsky’s theory of language development, a built -in storehouse of grammatical rules that applies to all human languages. Thus, training by parents is unnecessary for language development, as opposed to a behaviorist perspective (operant conditioning and imitation) o Explains Syntax! Behavioral view explains word meaning! Biological Influences Broca’s Area - a structure located in the left frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex that supports grammatical processing and language production Wernicke’s Area - a language structure located in the left temporal love of the cerebral cortex that plays a role in comprehending word meaning Getting Ready to Talk Phoneme- the smallest sound units that signal a change in meaning, such as the difference between the consonant sounds in “pa” and “ba . They are not the same across all languages! Categorical Speech Perception- the tendency to perceive as identical a range of sounds that belong to the same phonemic class . For example, “ra and la” are distinct sounds to English speakers, but sound the same to speakers of Japanese. Newborns, at 4-6 months, can distinguish their native language from a foreign one. Between the ages of 6-8 months they can focus on meaningful sound variations and begin to categorize phonemes. In bilingual homes they can separate the two languages visually, which allows them to learn to languages at once! Child-Directed Speech (CDS)- a form of language adults use to speak to infants and toddlers, consisting of short sentences with high-pitched, exaggerated expression, clear pronunciation, distinct pauses between speech segments, clear gestures to support verbal meaning, and repetition of new words in a variety of contexts. By 5 months, children are more emotionally responsive to it.
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First Speech Sounds: o Cooing- pleasant vowel-like noises made by infants, beginning around 2 months of age . They like the pleasant “oo” quality. Gradual consonants are then added,
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This note was uploaded on 02/24/2010 for the course PSYCH 130 taught by Professor Johnson during the Spring '08 term at UCLA.

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Chapter 9 - Chapter 9 The Nativist Perspective- Noam...

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