Galvan.GuestLecture

Galvan.GuestLecture - Brain Development Adriana Galvan, PhD...

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Brain Development Adriana Galvan, PhD
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Brain Development is the study of Neural Change
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• The reason to study the brain is not to understand where things happen in the brain , but because the brain is a very important part of the developing system and helps constrain interpretations about human behavioral development
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Major Questions in Brain Development 1. How does behavioral change occur across development? 2. How do genetic and environmental influences interact to influence neurodevelopment? 3. How does the environment “get woven into” brain development?
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Major Questions in Brain Development 5. How does timing of an event influence brain development? What makes a sensitive period sensitive? 6. How does behavior influence brain development? How does brain development influence behavior? 7. Do children and adults use the same neural substrates to perform the same task?
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The brain is a network • This means all neural regions work together to produce an output
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•Four (five) types of nested environmental systems •Bidirectional influences between and within the systems •Example: Events at home can influence events at school Ecological Systems Theory
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Characteristics of a Systems approach An appreciation that the nature of life (living beings) is dynamic (i.e. development is ongoing throughout life) Development is hierarchical Phenotypes can emerge from a complex and dynamic (ongoing) interplay of factors The “Individual” constructs their phenotypes from an already existing developmental history
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Probabilistic Epigenesis (Gottlieb) • Emphasizes the reciprocity of influences within and between levels of an organism’s development – Genetics – Neural activity – Behavior – Physical, social, and cultural influences of the external environment
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Gottlieb 2002
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Bidirectional influences • Lewis 1990 – Intrusive parenting at 3 months old >> insecure attachment at 1 year – Mother’s overstimulation is caused by child’s behavior at 3 months (unsocial) • Parent’s behavior affects the child’s behavior but the parent’s behavior was affected by the child’s earlier behavior.
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Genes Brain Structure Brain Function Experience Brain Structure Brain Function Experience Predetermined Epigenesis Probabilistic Epigenesis Gene-Environment Interaction
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• There is not a 1:1 correspondence between gene:neural activity or gene: behavior
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Galvan.GuestLecture - Brain Development Adriana Galvan, PhD...

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