Lecture_11Feb

Lecture_11Feb - Word Learning Brief overview of what gets...

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Word Learning
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• Brief overview of what gets learned when • Interesting questions • 3 Theories of language development
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Preparing to Produce Speech • In the first months of life, infants’ vocal tracts prepare for speech through crying, sneezing, sighing, burping, and lip-smacking. • At 6 to 8 weeks, infants begin to produce simple speech sounds, like “goo,” “aahh,” and “ooohh.”
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Stages of Speech Production • Babbling – Begins at about 7 months. Consists of producing syllables made up of a consonant followed by a vowel (“ba,” “pa,” “ma”). – Deaf infants exposed to American Sign Language begin to babble manually, making repetitive hand movements that are components of ASL signs.
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Using Words Infants first recognize words; then they begin to comprehend them. Infants as young as 4 months recognize their own name. By 7 to 8 months, infants recognize new words and remember them for weeks. By about 6 months, infants address the problem of reference, associating words with meaning (as shown by looking toward mother or father when someone says “Mommy” or “Daddy”).
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Mommy Tincoff & Jusczyk, 1999
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Tincoff & Jusczyk, 1999
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Early Word Production Comprehension vocabulary: Words that infants understand. – 10-month-old infants comprehend, but cannot say, 11 to 154 words. Productive vocabulary: Words that infants can say or sign. – Infants produce their first words between the ages of 10 and 25 months. Early word production is limited to the sounds infants can pronounce.
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Producing Words • Holophrasic period: The period in which a whole phrase is expressed by a single word. For instance, “drink” can refer to a desire for juice, as could “juice.” • Overextension of meaning: Using a given word broadly, such as “doggie” for any four- legged creature.
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Examples of Young Children’s Overextension of Meaning Ball ball, balloon, marble, apple, egg, spherical water tank (Rescorla, 1980) Cat cat, cat’s usual location on top of TV when absent (Rescorla, 1980) Moon moon, half-moon-shaped lemon slice, circular chrome dial on dishwasher,
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Lecture_11Feb - Word Learning Brief overview of what gets...

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