Lectures1a_2010_winter

Lectures1a_2010_winter - What is science? How is it done?...

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What is science? How is it done? The scientifc method is characterized by observability measurability + validity replicability The best approach is the use of experiments because they allow us to rule out competing hypotheses. Steps in conducting a study: 1. formulate the question 2. formulate the hypothesis, or prediction 3. decide on the methodology 4. collect and analyze the data 5. formulate conclusions and their implications 6. disseminate the information
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Step 1. The question: How do infants make sense of the visual world? Step 2. The hypothesis: Where do we start? “Gestalt” theory: Why does the world look the way it does? Methods: phenomenology and introspection An example: infant object perception
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organizational principles : goodness of form (simplicity, symmetry) continuity common fate Fgure/ground the whole is greater than the sum of the parts What would Gestalt theory predict about infants? Step 3. The method: Habituation/dishabituation Kellman (1983):
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Step 4. Collect and analyze the data. chance, randomness, patterns, and statistics
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Step 6. Publication in a journal How objective is this process? In the textbook, read about: Cross-sectional vs. longitudinal methods True (controlled) experiments vs. other methods (e.g., correlational studies, case studies, self-reports, naturalistic observations, interviews, physiological measures, etc.) independent + dependent variables, random assignment, etc. Sampling Ethical considerations Step 5. Draw conclusions and implications from the data: Were the predictions supported?
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Some of the principals, and their principles… The starting point: id Freud Mechanism(s) of development: parenting (internalization) Contributions to developmental psychology: emphasis on early experience interactionist perspective The goal: Key terms: id, ego, superego Oedipus complex (Electra for girls) oral, anal, phallic, latent, genital stages identi±cation, repression, projection, compensation, ±xation
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Some of the principals, and their principles… The starting point: a sense of trust vs. mistrust
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This note was uploaded on 02/24/2010 for the course PSYCH 130 taught by Professor Johnson during the Spring '08 term at UCLA.

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Lectures1a_2010_winter - What is science? How is it done?...

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