Chapter 04 notes S10

Chapter 04 notes S10 - Chapter 4 Reactions in Aqueous...

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1 Chapter 4 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions All problems are relevant Pages 124-131
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2 Terms Solution Homogenous mixture of 2 or more substances Solvent: Component with largest amount Water is the universal solvent Solute: Remaining components: smaller amounts Dissolution/dissolving: Water molecules surround & support solute molecules or ions Water is NOT a part of the chemical reaction
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3 Conductivity of Electrolytes in Aqueous Solutions Non-electrolyte No ionization Ex: sugar Strong electrolyte Full ionization Ex: NaCl Weak electrolyte Some ionization Ex: acetic acid
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4 Importance of Ionization in Aqueous Solutions Strong electrolyte Full ionization No reactant left Moles products= Moles reactants Directly use stoichiometry Weak electrolyte Partial ionization Some reactant left Moles products≠ Moles reactants Cannot use stoichiometry
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5 Precipitation Reactions
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6 Precipitation Terms Pb(N0 3 ) 2 (aq) +2KI (aq) PbI 2 (s, yellow) + 2KNO 3 (aq) Pb 2+ (aq) + 2N0 3 - (aq) + 2K + (aq) +2I - (aq) PbI 2 (s, yellow) +2K + (aq) + 2NO 3 - (aq) Net ionic equation: Pb 2+ (aq) + 2I - (aq) PbI 2 (s, yellow) Precipitation: Ions in solution combine to form an insoluble solid salt Precipitate: Solid salt that is formed Spectator Ions: Ions that do not react in solution and remain as ions
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7 Precipitation Reactions To predict products of a precipitation reaction, swap cations of the 2 aqueous salts. BaCI 2 (aq) + Na 2 SO 4 (aq) 2 NaCl(?) + BaSO 4 (?) Ba 2+ (aq) + 2Cl - (aq) + 2Na + (aq) + SO 4 2- (aq) 2 NaCl (aq) + BaSO 4 (s) Always match a cation to an anion Always keep the metal on the left in the products Balance charges in salts before putting in coefficients Use solubility rules to predict solubility of products
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8 Solubility Rules (must memorize) Solubility rules classify compounds into those that usually are soluble and those that usually are insoluble. Soluble Ammonium (NH 4 + ) Always soluble Check first! Hydrogen ion (H + ) Always soluble Alkali Metal (group 1A) Always soluble Nitrate (NO 3 ) Always soluble Perchlorate (ClO 4 ) Always soluble Acetate (C 2 H 3 O 2 ) Always soluble Halide (Cl , Br , I ) Insoluble: Pb 2+ , Hg 2 2+ , Hg 2+ , Ag + , Cu + Sulfate (SO 4 2– ) Insoluble: Pb 2+ , Hg 2 2+ ,Ba 2+ , Ca 2+ ,Sr 2+ Sparingly Sulfide (S 2– ) Only if cation is soluble Soluble Hydroxide (OH ) Only if cation is soluble (Insoluble) Oxide (O 2- ) Only if cation is soluble Carbonate (CO 3 2– ) Only if cation is soluble Phosphate (PO 4 3– ) See cations above
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Predicting Products Based on Solubility 1. Predict the product that will precipitate 2. Decide if products are soluble or insoluble 3. Write a net ionic equation to describe the reaction HgCl 2 (aq) + Na 2 CO 3 (aq) HgCO 3 (s, brown) + 2 NaCl (aq) Net ionic equation: Hg 2+ (aq) + CO 3 2- (aq) HgCO 3 (s, brown) NiCl 2 (aq) + Na 2 S (aq) NiS (s, yellow crystals) + 2 NaCl (aq) Net ionic equation: Ni 2+ (aq) + S 2- (aq) NiS (s, yellow crystals)
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This note was uploaded on 02/25/2010 for the course CHM 101 taught by Professor Geldart during the Spring '07 term at Rhode Island.

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Chapter 04 notes S10 - Chapter 4 Reactions in Aqueous...

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