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Chapter 05 notes S10

Chapter 05 notes S10 - Chapter 5 Gases 1 2 Questions and...

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1 Chapter 5 Gases
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2 Questions and Problems: Pages 162-169 Substances that exist as gases: all Pressure of a gas: 3-8, 13, 14 Gas Laws: All as needed for understanding Ideal gas equation: All as needed for understanding Dalton’s law of partial pressures: All as needed for understanding Kinetic molecular theory: only material on slides Deviation from ideal behavior: All as needed for understanding
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3 Properties of Gases Occupy the entire volume of their container Compressible Flow readily and mix easily Have low densities, low molecular weight
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4 Atmospheric Pressure Atmospheric pressure Pressure exerted by earth’s atmosphere Equal to 1atmosphere at sea level Unit is atm Barometer Pressure exerted by a column of Hg exactly 760mm high at sea level Measures atmospheric pressure in mm Hg Relationship to atmospheric pressure 1atm = 760 mmHg = 760 torr Other units: 1.01325 kPa = 29.921 in. Hg
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5 Measuring Experimental Gas Pressure A manometer measures pressure of gases Below 1 atm Above 1atm Closed tube manometer Closed tube manometer P gas = Height = mm Hg P gas = 760mm Hg + height
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6 Gas Laws and the Ideal Gas Equation
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7 For a fixed amount of gas at constant temperature, volume decreases as pressure increases Rearranging equation PV = constant so P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 a2up pressure: a2down volume Cuts space between molecules a2down volume: a2up pressure Molecule-wall collisions increase Boyle’s Law: Pressure/Volume Relationship 1 2 2 1 V V P P = 1 2 2 1 P V P V =
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8 A 4.50-L cylinder contains He(g) at an unknown pressure. It is now connected to a 92.5-L evacuated cylinder. When the connecting valve between the two cylinders is opened, the pressure falls to 1.40 atm. What was the pressure in the 4.50-L cylinder? Initial Conditions (P 1 V 1 ) Final Conditions (P 2 V 2 ) V 1 =4.50L V 2 =4.50L+92.5L=97.0L P 1 = ? atm P 2 = 1.40 atm atm L x L x atm V V P P 2 . 30 50 . 4 1 1 0 . 97 1 40 . 1 1 2 2 1 = = =
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9 For a fixed amount of gas at constant pressure, volume increases as temperature increases Rearranging equation V/T= constant so V 1 /T 1 = V 2 /T 2 Temp. in kelvins (T), not Celsius (t) T (K) = t (0ºC) + 273.15 As temperature increases: Molecules move faster They hit the wall harder Volume increases to hold pressure Charles’ Law: Volume/Temp. Relationship 2 1 2 1 T T V V = 2 1 2 1 V V T T =
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10 At fixed temperature and pressure, the volume of a gas depends on the # of moles of gas present
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