Chapter 07 notes S10

Chapter 07 notes S10 - Chapter Seven The Electronic...

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1 Chapter Seven The Electronic Structure of Atoms
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2 Questions and Problems: Pages 238-241 Quantum theory: All Photoelectric effect: All Bohr’s Theory: All Quantum Mechanics: 48,50-52 and all problems Atomic orbitals: both 69 and 70 Electron configuration: All Aufbau principle: All
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3 Wave Theory Wave R epeating disturbance spreading out from a defined origin Characterized by wavelength, frequency and amplitude Wavelength ( λ ) Distance between identical pts Units some form of meters Frequency ( ν ) Number of waves that pass through a point in 1 second Units of cycles/sec or Hz Amplitude Height of wave from center pt Intensity of wave
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4 Electromagnetic Radiation Electromagnetic Radiation Emission/transmission of energy in the form of waves with both electrical and magnetic components Travels at the speed of light, c c= 3.00 x 10 8 m/s Frequency & wavelength linked c= λν
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5 What is the wavelength of an FM-radiowave with a 94.9 MHz frequency? c = λν =3.00 x 10 8 m/s λ = c/ ν 94.9M Hz = 94.9 x 10 6 Hz = 94.9 x 10 6 /s m x s x s m x 16 . 3 10 9 . 94 1 10 00 . 3 6 8 = = λ
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6 Quantum Theory and the Photoelectric Effect
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7 Max Planck’s Quantum Theory Measurements show amount of energy emitted by an object at a certain temperature is directly related to its wavelength Theorized that the energy must be in discrete amounts. May be in multiples of these discrete amounts E = h ν , E = 2h ν , E = 3h ν Called the smallest amount of energy a Quantum: Planck’s constant: h = 6.63 X 10 -34 J s Didn’t know why , but math worked over entire spectrum
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8 Einstein and the Photoelectric Effect Experiment to prove why E= h ν Full spectrum light hits metal surface Energy transferred to electrons in metal Electrons break free and escape to anode Flow of electrons recorded with voltmeter Results Light energy must have a certain threshold frequency to dislodge electrons Planck’s theory: E = h ν Electrons act as particles where KE=h ν Einstein called these particles “photons”
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Chapter 07 notes S10 - Chapter Seven The Electronic...

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