Chapter 08 notes S10

Chapter 08 notes S10 - Chapter Eight The Periodic Table...

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1 Chapter Eight The Periodic Table Questions: All except 55, 56, 63,
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2 Mendeleev’s Periodic Table 1869 Arranged the known elements in order of increasing atomic mass from left to right and from top to bottom in groups. Elements with similar properties are placed in same column. Used table to predict properties of undiscovered elements Eka-Silicon Germanium MM: 72 MM: 72.6 Density: 5.5g/mL Density: 5.47g/mL Color: dirty gray Color: grayish white O I II III IV V VI VII H 1 He Li Be B C N O F 4 7 9 11 12 14 16 19 Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl 20 23 24 27 28 31 32 35 Ar K Ca Ge As Se Br 40 39 40 75 79 80 Kr Rb Sr In Sn Sb Te I 84 85 88 115 119 122 128 127 Xe Cs Ba Tl Pb Bi 131 133 137 204 207 209 Rn (222)
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3 The Modern Periodic Table Representative Elements: (main group elements) Incomplete s or p shell determine elemental properties
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4 Valence and Core Electrons Valence electrons: Highest shell farthest from nucleus Largest principal quantum number (n) Located on the outside of the atom Determine the behavior of the atom Core electrons Located on the inside in inner shells. Principal quantum number is lower Example Oxygen, O Z = 8 valence electrons e- = 6 Core electrons e- = 2 4 2 2 2 2 1 p s s 4 2 2 2 p s 2 1 s
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5 Effect of Valence electrons on Elements Elements most stable with noble gas configuration Last column in periodic table No electrons want to be added or removed Octet rule satisfied (8 electrons= 2s + 6p) Isoelectronic: ion has same spdf as noble gas Helium (and Hydrogen) follow duet rule (2 electrons) Main group elements Valence electrons: s 2 p 6 Electrons are added: form anions Electrons removed: form cations Transition metals All form cations Remove electrons from shell 4s before 3d, 5s before 4d, etc.
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6 Periodic Properties in Main Group Elements
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7 Atomic Radius Atomic radius increases from top to bottom in a group
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This note was uploaded on 02/25/2010 for the course CHM 101 taught by Professor Geldart during the Spring '07 term at Rhode Island.

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Chapter 08 notes S10 - Chapter Eight The Periodic Table...

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