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Chapter 10 notes S10

Chapter 10 notes S10 - 1 Chapter Ten Chemical Bonding ll...

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1 Chapter Ten Chemical Bonding ll Molecular Geometry and Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals
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2 Molecular Geometry
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3 The Valence-Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Method based on the idea that pairs of valence electrons in bonded atoms repel one another. Assumes electron pairs try to get as far apart as possible Each electron pair or bond takes up ~ same amount of space # of bonds or pairs determines molecular geometry Molecular Geometry: The shape of a molecule that describes the location of nuclei & the connections between them.
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4 Molecules with No Lone Pairs Orientation due to number of repulsions Bond angles based on electron group geometry 2 electron groups - linear AB 2 180º 3 electron groups - trigonal planar AB 3 120º 4 electron groups - tetrahedral AB 4 109.5º 5 electron groups - trigonal bipyramidal AB 5 90º 120º & 180º 6 electron groups - octahedral AB 6 90º & 180º Expanded Valence Shell Valence electrons > 8 AB 5 and AB 6 Central atom is group 3 or higher. (d electrons)
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5 Molecules with No Lone Pairs Bond angles due to # of repulsions Each bond takes up space of 1 electron pair AB 2 AB 3 AB 4 Linear Trigonal planar Tetrahedral AB 5 AB 6 Trigonal bipyramid Octahedral
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6 Molecules with Lone Pairs Lone pair electrons not seen but take up space Act as “invisible bond” Count electrons as E’s Single, double or triple bonds count as 1 bond To determine molecular geometry Add up all the B’s and E’s on the molecule AB 2 E 2 The sum equals number of spaces needed 2B + 2E = 4 # spaces = 4 Match to table of geometries without lone pairs 4 spaces - tetrahedral AB 4 H O H - - B A B - -
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7 Class # of atoms bonded to central atom # lone pairs on central atom Arrangement of electron pairs Molecular Geometry AB 3 3 0 trigonal planar trigonal planar AB 2 E 2 1 trigonal planar bent Molecules with Lone Pairs: AB 3
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8 Class # of atoms bonded to central atom # lone pairs on central atom Arrangement of electron pairs Molecular Geometry AB 4 4 0 tetrahedral tetrahedral AB 3 E 3 1 tetrahedral trigonal pyramidal AB 2 E 2 2 2 tetrahedral bent H O H Molecules with Lone Pairs: AB 4
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9 AB
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