Chapter 12 notes S10

Chapter 12 notes S10 - Chapter Twelve Intermolecular Forces...

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1 Chapter Twelve Intermolecular Forces And Liquids and Solids
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2 States of Matter Gases Low density No fixed volume or shape Readily compressed Atoms/molecules move easily Liquids High density Fixed volume Assumes shape of container Does not compress Molecules flow past each other Solids High density Fixed shape and volume Does not compress Vibrational motion only
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3 Intermolecular Forces Types of forces Intermolecular forces: attractive forces between molecules Intramolecular forces: hold atoms together in a molecule Comparison: Intermolecular vs. intramolecular Intermolecular: 40 kJ to vaporize 1 mole of water Intramolecular: 460 kJ to break O-H bonds in 1 mole of water Intermolecular forces weaker than intramolecular forces “Measure” of intermolecular force Boiling point: break forces holding liquid together Melting point: break forces holding solid together Enthalpy of these reactions: Δ H vap, Δ H fus, Δ H sub
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4 Exist between molecules with permanent dipoles. Dipoles align themselves with the positive end of one dipole directed toward negative ends of neighboring dipoles. Increases with molecular polarity Dipole-Dipole Forces
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5 Ion-Dipole Forces Attractive forces between an ion and a polar molecule Not a van der Waal’s forces Electrostatic charges only No induced charges Hydration Cations/anions interact with water Dissolve ionic salts Polar H 2 O molecules surrounds ion Higher charge Stronger force
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Attractive forces that result from temporary dipoles induced in atoms or molecules Strength determined by polarizability Measure of how easy it is to distort electron density Ion induced dipole Dipole induced due to attraction to nearby ion Dipole induced dipole Pairs form and fade away. Net attraction holds molecules together
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Chapter 12 notes S10 - Chapter Twelve Intermolecular Forces...

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